Finding next weeks readings: on Moodle (top of Moodle page) external tools
Issues and context (lecture 4)
Criticisms of convectional methods:
problem that value neutrality may be impossible: if you pick someone to study you are not being completely
objective because you are choosing something
problem of observer effect: you can not study something with out an effect on it. Ex, survey questions have
an effect on people, time of day has an effect o people, simply studying something has an effect on them
outcome of the research may be predetermined by the method that you use. Ex, if you choose to study a
country by looking at its leaders that could already have a selection in it
correlation does not indicate causation: the fact that you find greater equality in an area with higher
democracy that doesn’t explain to us if they effect each other or which one effect the other. Ex, does
democracy effect equality or does equality effect democracy.
Concept are always contestable and political: how can you determine if someone is middle income or lower
income who sets the bar? Who creates the proper meaning.
The research relationship itself (of researcher to research subjects) is itself a political relationship – power
is involved. Ex, study on school children, this is effected by power because they have to power over the
children they were studying.
resurgence of normative approaches
political economy approaches take greater look at economic factors (particularly at capitalism’s influence on
feminist approaches look at the impact of gender on politics: looked at what had been considered political.
Ex, even now in Canada women with equal education and work experience are earning about 74cents to
the dollar of what men are earning attention to things like socialization and cultural factors that influence behaviors: ex, why is there a gender
difference in votes
“transformative” methodologies try to develop methods of doing research to empower marginalized
research subject: ex, homeless people how could you build things into the research that might change the
life situation, etc.
Contemporary political studies:
everything is happening – wide range of methodologies
statistical analyses – as before but with increased attention to assumptions, to bias, etc.
greater use of qualitative data alongside quantitative studies
analysis of institutional structures and their impact
increased use of transformative methodologies
What do we look at when we look at context:
look at political attitude and beliefs
look at the specific institutions in that situation do
choice of particular wording
two Canadians were arrested in Egypt: they were arrested for over 30 days with out a charge
each of the below could be considered as concentric circles: some are more peripheral some are more
central (look for concentric circles)
Who are the actors/participants the two guys
the news people
the people raising awareness of this
the Egyptian government
harper has expressed his disappointment
Canadians started a petition
Why hunger strike: to show how wrong their arrest is
Pressure Canadian government
Pressure the Egyptian government
What is the action of the Canadian government
Motivations can be irrational
Structures and institutions
The jail itself is a structure
The state of the government
State of emergency in Egypt
The institution of the state itself in Egypt Canada cant just invade the country and grab the detained
What kind of attitudes are in Egypt
The history in Egypt
How they have a different voting system: same person has been in power for a long time
Oil is located in the middle eastern countries and not in the western countries and the western countries
want that oil
They could be released
They could not be released
They could die due to hunger strike
Concentric circles could represent a metaphor
Each aspect of context has both highly relevant, somewhat relevant and more remote aspects
Think of circles as always shifting The State 09/23/2013 The State 09/23/2013
www.theundergraduatereview.com : spoken word poem submission
What is the state?
“a human community that successfully claims monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a
given territory” – Max Weber
important part of the definition is the legitimacy section. Ex, should Syria be considered a state due to the
fact that the government is not legitimate
(a) the government/executive of a country;
(b) the whole structure of political authority in a country
historical origin of modern usage: Peace of Westphalia 1648
State and government:
Terms used interchangeably
Government as offices/officers charged with performing functions of governance
State as the whole edifice, all political authority within a given territory
Car and driver analogy The State 09/23/2013
Car is the state: different features different kind of performance
The driver is the government
Or state could be car + driver
why do we like to have a state:
to have someone decided the best use of resources
creating road, sewage, etc
protect private property
protection for the overall country (army)
we want a state to help our community thrive
education (ruled by government)
limits our freedom (to stop anarchy)
Other terms: The State 09/23/2013
Sovereignty: has complete power; supreme authority
Authority: legitimate use of power. State has authority to give you a ticket if you break the law. The state
gives certain people the authority to do so, not just anyone can have that authority.
How do you come to have authority:
Medieval time (god, current king)
Current time (not by god but most governments are based on reasonable assumption that we have a state
(laws) safer community)
Other forms of authority:
Traditional authority: something we follow because its always been done (convention)
Political Obligation: things we owe the state because they are taking care of our infrastructure, safety, etc.
To contribute to society
Loyal to your country
Very limited vs. very interventionist: different states could be at different points of this spectrum.
Very limited: only thinking about security
Very interventionist: states that take on the responsibilities to take on different things besides security. The State 09/23/2013
Goals of intervention
Welfare: health and education, worker standards, environmental standards
Authoritarian vs. democratic: how much power is in the people themselves or how much power is from the
How does the state actually work: (important)
Different states work differently
Empirical and normative considerations
Not the same as asking how government get elected, but how power actually functions
Pluralist: ex, member of parliament might be influenced but overall the state will balance out
Elite Pluralism: leaders are represented not the individuals (ex, we are being
represented by the leaders of our groups, political parties)
Corporatist: there where some states that anticipated that the major problem would be on the group of
class; owners of businesses and the shoppers. It was made that nothing could be done with out getting
approved by both groups.
Elitist that in every society an elite is going to immerge. People in a certain class, up bringing, etc will rise
up and control as a unified group in a certain aspect because they will think similarly.
Marxist : we live in a society that has a capitalist economy. Because of that the state is obliged to support
capitalism. Take into account what would benefit capitalism. Every society in history (usually a small group
of people) own how things are produced and they benefit from it where other people are doing the work but
don’t gain. Ex, slaves don’t benefit but the salve owners would benefit
New Right: the state has its own interest. The state is always trying to build itself and grow and not care
about the overall population. Ex, increase taxes, creep more and more into each persons personal life. The State 09/23/2013
How should the state function: (come back too)
Ideological perspectives are different
What should they be?
Within liberalism: are individuals or groups best?
How interventionist should the state be, and to what ends
What is happening to the state:
The state is changing really dramatically because of the economy we are in right now
47% of our economy is owned by 157 businesses around the world:
concern because loss of sovereignty
challenges to sovereignty (inside and outside)
declining of power in relations to larger political and economic systems
effect of globalization makes it harder to regulate
is our state being hallowed out 09/23/2013 09/23/2013
no lecture on Wednesday or Monday
tutorials are running on Wednesday
no weekly writing assignment
begin research on essay next week
mind set should be; treasure hunting
46 articles that will make us make your argument
start doing searched to help you make your argument
look at the repost of the assignment not original one
want week and a half for research
Why study ideologies:
Differentiating ideologies from political theories/philosophies
i. Typicality: how politics actually get talked about; most typical form we
discuss politics. Page 6 of article.
ii. Influence: we are all influence by our gut feelings, people, society, general
views on politics
iii. Conceptual creativity: if you are comfortable with the beliefs you have in
the world then you will have some sense of what you believe to be right
iv. Communicability: someone could have their own private theory of how the
world works but no one has their own private ideology. 09/23/2013
Ex, Enbridge wants to send oil through a tunnel from somewhere to Alberta; how would an
environmentalist or neoliberal respond to that?
Ex, George Zimmerman case and trayvon martin; how would people see this different from an anti racist
and fascist view point?
The term ideologies was considered a scientific term
Negative vs. Positive approaches
Negative: Ideology(ies) contrasted with the “truth” . there is a “truth” to the world, and negative ideology is
Positive: Belief systems are ubiquitous, unavoidable. We all have them, but we don’t notice just as we don’t
notice our own
“We examine ideology as fellow sufferers, not as neutral observers.” Andrew Vincent, Political Ideologies,
“Ideologies do not stand side by side with something objective or real; rather they subtly constitute this
reality.” Ibid., p.21 (exam question: what does he mean by this)
Challenge: how might we best enter the political thinking of another, in order not instantly counter it, but
better to grasp it? Liberalisms 09/23/2013
1) intro notes
2) rise of classical liberalism
3) basic tenets
4) economic liberalism and/or liberal democracy
diverse meanings of liberalism – possibly so conflicted as to be meaningless
exam: is the term liberalism so conflicted that it becomes meaningless
nearly everything we’ve studied in the course so far fit within liberalism – ideas about democracy, the state,
justice, equality, etc.
difficult to “see” because it is so familiar to us.
Ex, most of us already share the view of liberalism because its so familiar. We were raised to see it that way
that the individuals freedom is important and we should not close of peoples freedoms, that human beings
are fundamentally equal.
Challenge to this course is to appear that other peoples views are not “crazy” that they make sense
because they were brought up to believe in that way of living
Ex, how could so many people be okay with slaves back in the day
The meaning of “liberal” is not exactly the same as liberalism: can denote modern, generous, tolerant,
broadminded, or general (ex, liberal education)
Range of different view points of perspective
Known to be left wing political view (mainstream)
Names of ideologies not associated with particular political parties – ex, in Canada, a;; dive major federal
parties (Conservative, NDP, Liberal, Green, and Bloc) can be seen as espousing liberal values.
This is also true of both the Republicans and Democrats in the U.S and the Conservatives, Liberal
Democrats and Labour Party in the U.K. Liberalisms 09/23/2013
Rise of Classical Liberalism:
Enlightenment, Reformation, Renaissance.
16 19 century
mass social change ex, black plague
challenges to existing forms of government and the church
social upheaval – famines, plagues
further social upheaval with industrialization and urbanization
“clearances” – cleared the peasants (entire communities) of the land to make the land more productive and
replaced them with sheep. This increased industrialization of factories which cause more profit.
New faith in “reason” and “science”, the possibility of advance and discovery
Rise in capital base in trade; trying to make money in trades.
Community is surrounded by the idea of finding cheap trading goods to make money to sell the for more
money to make capital. Then people invested that money in industrial capitalism.
Notion of a “social contract” – government as a consequence of human reason.
Point of the contract is to benefit both people that enter them; benefit all members of society
had social contract theorist writing about what the best form of government; people want a government to
keep the peace, however they want it to be a voted government (rationally).
Government: was for the purpose of law in order in the theorists minds
Basic Tenets of Liberalism:
Individualism Liberalisms 09/23/2013
Allowed to make choices in your best interest
Rational, take responsablity in your own life
Free to do what you want when you want
Security that guaranteed our freedom
A desire to be free
Acquisition of property
Locke: the apple belongs to you if you pick the apple, but the apple on the tree does not belong to you. Its
mine because my labour is mixed with it.
People may have property and the government should stop people from taking their property
Social contract: among us to create a government
We only want the government to protect our stuff not encroach our private life. Therefore there are
something’s that are public but there are something’s that are private.
Belief that we can have a better society and better government
Education? Do we count on everyone having a common capacity to reason
Should most people have a general education Liberalisms 09/23/2013
Locke: justification of property in labour; because we acquired it through legal means
State justified as protecting property
tried to figure out how the new capitalist economy was working.
Analyzed: the political analysis on how capitalism works
Capacity for greater profit
Used the resources they had the most effectively/efficiently
Application of technology and division of labour
Most rational sense to do it
Result in the most profit
The “invisible hand of the market”
Efficiency, productivity, expansion, best allocation of resources and talents
Justification of private ownership
Linked to the rise of capitalism (private property, class divisions between owner/investor and wageearning
American and French revolutions –
Democratic form of government best at representing the common interests
Everyone rationally will share an interest in protection of self and property
Everyone rationally will want social progress and ad