Pols241 Week 3 lecture 1 Sept. 23/2013
globalization after WWII lead to an opening of borders
competition from abroad forced industries to close down or downsize which lead to a clash
between the working class and business class.
o In turn created unrest and provided a backdrop for the development of Bureaucratic
o Ruling elites were to weak at first to take power, therefore they had to rely on
bonapartism to gain power.
Brazil had a developed bourgeoisie and the aristocracy was able to convince them to support
their crusade against communism.
o However they were not able to make them give up ISI
Peru has a formidable peasantry; therefore the military decided that they needed to appease
Chile had a strong aristocracy and a small bourgeoisie
o Thus, the elites don’t have to make concessions to the bourgeoisie
Pinochet decided to export more and open the country up to the world market
Election of Salvador Allende (1970)
Socialist, but he built a coalition of left wing parties( most notably
o Provided the elites with the ability to point to a specific threat
of communism (as they are now actually in power and in
Therefore they force and bully the bourgeoisie into
rallying behind Pinochet.
How did the Pinochet regime sell its vision to the people?
Pinochet used bonapartism
Had to create narratives in order to be elected
o 1) defensive project
The idea that there is a threat to government and
country (communists are everywhere!)
Disunity (the reason why nothing gets done is because
the politicians are always bickering thus we need to get
rid of democracy)
o 2) offensive project
What the government needs and will do about it
Analogy of the body
Pinochet regime will create unity which will lead
to more exports, foreign investments and
wealth for everyone.
Pinochet’s utopian offensive project sells you a
future o Michel Focault: Utopia is the most