Pols241 week 11 lec.3 nov.21
Harps on question of culture (shortcomings of African culture and how it
Prof disagree with it (has diff argument)
o Negative aspects
Structural problems (but every region has had to face some)
But in Africa they seem to be insoluble (unsolvable)
But it is actually quite the opposite
o There are 51 countries in Africa= different cultures, different
experiences (approach issues with variations)
o GDP has increased in last 13-14 years (unprecedented)
Growth rate= higher than growth of population
Growth accounted for by new production and exploitation of natural gas and
oils= 3 and a half trillion dollar GDP
However, there is now a population of 40 million people
o Biggest development in Africa is urbanization (rats are higher than in other regions in
o Populations are moving increasingly into the cities and thus becoming more involved in
political and social life.
Thus, issues of governance/state become more prominent in their lives.
o See development of new middle class
Eg. Felt the most in South Africa
Today the middle class represents 21% of population
o Earn 45% of all income in the country
o South Africa is getting richer
The rich (top 3% has a rising percentage of income
which is rising quickly)
Middle Class share is declining, but slowly
The poor’s share is however, rapidly declining.
Thus, African society is changing fundamentally, not the
same as in 1964 where everyone shared the same
standard of living.
o Very little industrialization
Most economies are managed according to an export-led development model.
(produce natural resources for China and agricultural products for Europe_
Used to account for 6% of world trade, now it accounts for 3
Thus, its not that they are getting left behind, it means that they are not
getting a fair price for their exports o =part of the problem
o How do we explain this?
Structure of world economy
Can be poor for no fault of your own
19502-60s IMF and World Bank
o Said that Africa should only sell things that would sell well in
certain regions ( ie. Coffee peanuts, bananas etc)
o Gave money to south Africa so they could grow more of these
specific products for certain countries.
o However for most of these commodities the prices dropped
because more and more countries were producing the same
products. Thus cre