Pols241 week12 lec2 nov26
Does Democracy require ethnic/linguistic homogenetity?
o No (ex. Nigeria, Botswana, Canada)
o If homogeneity is required we are all in deep trouble
Does democracy require that the citizens have to have an active will to be part of the country?
o To a certain extent yes, need to want to participate in democratic process but not
necessarily to be part of the national identity. (ex. Canada)
o In most democracies people want to be heard (they want to belong because it pays,
want to participate because it work = more utilitarian)
Ex. Canada: Quebec still participated in elections despite considering themselves
o Utility plays a huge role
People participate without a sense of identity
EU: still gets people to vote despite people’s attachment to their own identities
(ie. Italian first)
o Ultimately, don’t need to trust each other to participate in the same democratic process
Ex. Canada: Northern Ontario distrusts southern part
o Ultimately personal attitudes and self-definition can be shaped by conflicts
o Build a democracy first then people become democratic citizens
As people play the game they start to see it as natural until they eventually
internalize the rules of the game.
Thus, democracy reshapes civil society.
o Model of democracy based on utility
Pragmatic approach-John locke and England
1) Nigeria: decided democracy was worth trying…
o Culture has nothing to do with it
o Appeal to utility seems to be universal
A question of survival
Serves as a foundation of behavior
Pragmatism pre-disposes humans to democracy
Ultimately need a modern outlook to be democratic
o Book mentions that Africas borders are artificial= means that they can’t have a
However, border’s of Canada are also artificial because they are the result of
treaties. This did not prevent democracy
No evidence that in Africa the borders are hindering democracies.
Many myths about the prospect of Democracy in Africa Liberalization and Democratization
o Do we need a market economy?
o Do we need a bourgeoisie business class?
If we didn’t have it a competitive/adversarial model of democracy would not
have developed because they have an interest in making sure that the state
doesn’t control them.
Want to control the state and other classes through the state while
remaining free themselves.
Eg. Eastern and central Europe