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Pols241 week 12 lec3 nov.docx

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Queen's University
Political Studies
POLS 241
Dru Lauzon

Pols241 week 12 lec3 nov.28  Ethnicity and Tribalism in Africa o Brings up question of nationalism  Ernst gellners definition  Book makes the case that at first glance Africa looks divided between different groups (ethic, linguistic etc) which prevent democracy, because they all have different interests= preventing compromise which is what democracy is all about.  As such, if different interests are an obstacle we should therefore have no democracy period in Africa, Germany, Switzerland etc  Either it is or it isn’t a strict obstacle  If we look outside of Africa at different tribal countries like Canada ( English and French) democracy still seems to flourish.  Stepan: hyper-nationalism can lead to conflict that will break down democratic institutions. However it can also serve as a source of opposition, mobilization.  Reconciling different identities  Not through winner take all system  In Germany and in Canada federalism was used.  Constitutional methods o Ensure that everyone is at least partially a winner= bridging identity gap.  Consociational methods o Botswana, Switzerland o Rules of consensus (decision made by some that excludes others is a bad thing) o Based on voice, participation and consensus o Therefore, once federalism and consociationalism is established  Moving away from liberal democracy  Thus, maybe less adversarial models can reconcile identity differences o Can use non-democratic means like federalism (compartmentalizes votes and voices-ie. Can vote in Quebec but not in Ontario, limits rights to create partial winners in the system.) o Thus, pragmatic humans have adopted different forms of democracy in response to different circumstances.  Education o Book assumes that there won’t be a strong democracy in Africa until everyone is educated  In Canada people don’t know cabinet ministers, have problems with civic education, some are illiterate  Even in the best democracies in the world not everyone is educated
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