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POLS 243 Lectures

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Political Studies
POLS 243
John Mc Garry

Week 2 How do States Respond to Ethnic Diversity9182012 23000 PM 1 Difference Elimination Strategies 2 Difference Management Strategies Special cases Canada Hungary Romania Cyprus Sri Lanka Bosnia etco Strong degree of antagonismdivided societies based on ethnic diversityEg Irelanddivided on religion resulting in violenceDifference Elimination StrategiesGenocide o Response to diversity is to get rid of them by killing in whole or apart o Eg WWI Turkish genocide against Armenians crime in Turkey to say there was a genocide WWII Holocaust Rwanda 1994 Bosnia 1995 Darfur o What is genocide Why do states commit genocide What can be done about it Can it be preventedEthnic Expulsions o Sometimes happens in isolation from genocide sometimes together o States that intentionally decide to expel kick out a population o Eg Turkey trying to expel Greeks Cyprus 1974Turkey partitioned the island Bosnia perpetrated by the Serbs and the CroatsSecession and Partitiono States accepting that a minority can secede does not happen very oftenusually only if there has been a war o Quebec Referendum 1985o Any province in Canada that wants to secede can provided it has a referendum with a clear question with a clear majority o Britain will allow Scotland to secede provided they use a clear question o Secessiona minority group secedes from a state agreed upon o Partitionsomething done to a country by others partitioned by a neighbouring country or by an international community or an empire partitions because the unpartitioned entity is homogenous and needs to remain that way to survive Eg the British empire seems to be responsible for many partitions British partitioned India and Pakistan 1948 partitioned Palestine along ethnic religious linesEg AustroHungarian empire Aim is to divide into homogeneous entities but rarely works because they rarely are homogenous anyways IndiaIreland 1921 North was mainly Protestant but still had 30 Catholic population that wanted to be on the partition line Assimilation o One of the best known ways to eliminate diversity o Minoritys culture is essentially being absorbed into the dominant communitys culture give up parts of the culture and identity o Heavily dependent on whether the minority is or isnt ready to accept assimilationo Eliminate conflict stemming from a particular minorityo Canada tried to assimilate indigenous peoples residential schoolscould not speak language or religion Integrationo Dominant method of conflict resolutiono Allow ethnic and cultural diversity in a private sphere eg Jewish schools allowed as long at theyre private o Argue that there should be no state sanction or promotion of diversity in the public sphere state should stay away from allowing minorities to have publicly funded expression tho Eg 17 C Europe wars of religiono Became a very attractive liberal notionseparation of church and stateDifference Management StrategiesCant get rid of the community because it is not feasibleControlo Constrains or controls a minority they are not keen ono No conflict may just mean the state is good at control not that they completely get alongo Eg Apartheid South Africarun by Dutchspeaking whites 85 pop blacks did not vote o Eg SyriaAssads regime is a minority control but is weakening from rebellion from the minority
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