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Pols250 Winter term notes secret slides part 4(Joh Sutart Mills).docx

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Queen's University
Political Studies
POLS 250
Colin Farrelly

Pols250 Winter term notes secret slides part 4 (John Stuart Mill)  Secret slide 1 o Haydn and the oyster example  (looking at JSs critique of bentham saying that the quantity of pleasure is not all that matters)  Haydn: 77 years X Pleasure  Oyster years X less pleasure  Bentham: we should choose oyster (more quantity of pleasure)  Ill: wants to reject this….the quality is what matters.  Secret slide 2 o Mills informed Preference test  Solution to the Hayden and the Oyster example  Key is you have to experience the pleasures in order to qualify for the test  Test is not as simple as putting something in “lower” or “higher” category  Ex. Scratching an itch vs. drinking a beer….drinking a beer vs. reading poetry  Higher and lower pleasures are all relative.  Secret slide 3 o The proof of utility principal  Stage 2) The greatest happiness is desirable (maximize everyone else’s happiness)  Gap between saying it is rational to pursue your own greatest happiness to pursuing the greatest happiness overall.  MILL NEEDS AN ARGUMENT FOR IMPARTIALITY  Egoist might accept 1 but not 2  Mill makes a moral assumption that everyone wants everyone else to be happy.  “Sure I want Happiness but why do I need to maximize it for others?”  Relies on intutition=problem  Secret slide 4 o Stage 3) Nothing other than happiness is desirable  Mils opponents: Virtue is desirable  Obvious tacit for Mill: Virtue has only instrumental value (leads to happiness) but he does not take this route.  Instead Mill argues that virtue is “desirable for itself”. People are virtuous because they value being virtuous.  Secret slide 5 o Reconciling this
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