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Lecture 3

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Political Studies
POLS 342
Normand Perreault

Pols342 week 3 lecture 1 - Big paper: Tuesday need to have a topic ( a page, topic proposal needs to be detailed, needs to be broad enough to bring in aspects from four different perspectives, a paragraph, choose one specific country as a case, then bring in other examples for the comparative persepective) - Small paper: 1500 words, ask a question that would help us deepen our understanding of the material in weeks 1-4, I think a question that would help us understand the material further is……., readings and lectures can bring in outside sources if necessary, - What happens in independence is important to understand what happens after o Moment of independence  Split takes place that lasts up until this day between conservatives and liberals • Early to middle of 19 century (moment of independence) o These societies are dominated by Criollos (born in SA but of European descent). Natural divide between them, some live in the cities/close to government, some live in large estates near the capital. Ie. Some are close to the centres of power= best established of the criollos= become core of conservatives o Criollos who live in the boonies, don’t have large lands, live away from centres of power= become the base of the liberals o 1) conservatives: the first large hasendados, best land, large estates. See themselves as the inheritors of the Spanish colonial powers (this pattern is seen in almost all colonial powers). The largest well positioned haciendas. Promot strong central authority- want to recreate the authority that spain had over the colonies with them holding the reigns of power, believe that Columbia should be united etc. Favour an alliance with the church think that the church needs to make only one change to become their friend ( priests and bishops must be selected from the families of the elite which are the conservatives, church is happy to do this). Believe in a limited franchise= only people with massive amounts of property care about the land and thus they are the only ones who should vote but only the elites have this. Thus there is a democracy but one where only the elites get to vote. They believe that the land should not be bought and sold on the market.  2 kinds of land • 1) haciendas • 2) communal land (indigenous peoples land)- conservatives don’t want land to be sold on the market because they don’t want mestizos or other criollos to buy land and rise to power through political participation. Thus hey want to keep political power, it’s about racism, keeping political power and maintain the casta system established by spain and not diluting political power by spreading it, exclusion  …..  The conservatives who own large estates, best land and produce the best stuff (columbia-cotton, sell it to Britain). Interested in linking their economies to that of England and are interested in trade subsidies from the government so they can sell their products to England directly. Thus, want centralized government so they could build warehouses and harbours and give their products to England to make more money.  Conservative is someone who want to use the state to promote their own economic interests. o 2) liberals: land in remote areas (small), live with indigenous population, come to resent the rules laid out by the centres of power. Federalists, less wealthy, live in outlying area, still exploit indigenous people on small haciendas. Land tends to be not a good/profitable; the people who get that land don’t have as high a status as conservatives. Many tend to be rougher around the edges because they need to fight for their economic survival. Resented church, Spain because they restricted them in what they could do to the indigenous peoples- still embody notion of defiance, inheritors form the encomiendos.  Smaller large land owners  Want decentralized governmend- believe local control allows them to do more, exploit indigenous people and do what they see fit.  Still playing the game of putting the people under their protection against other indigenous competitors. Thus organize them into militias and arm them and pit them against other haciendas. • Use terror and charisma to prevent the people they exploited from killing them once they arm them. • Don’t run an estate in the wilderness without being tough and nasty • This breed of hacendados give rise to the caudilos. • Also organized militias of landless criollos because these landless criollos wanted to fight against the central authority, opportunity to gain wealth and exploit indeginous pop. • They are proponents of the rule of law despite being barbarians because they want it to protect them against the central authority. • Tend to oppose state on everything because its not done under their authority. • Promote anarchy, reject state control over education, civil manners, reject the church and support broader suffrage (the right to vote for everyone of them- not indigenous people) • Believe in free market and free trade o Also interested in trade with Britain, but are more interests in buying stuff from them and then selling the stuff they buy. More into entrepreneurship and believe if they make money through commerce they should be allowed to buy land freely and from indeginous people and hacendados and wear nice clothes and go into the cities and have status. • Defined by their relationship to the state just like conservatives o Two models of development also emerged  1) conservative: keep things as they are and sell more stuff  2) liberal: decentralized anarchy: government off your back, frontier mentality  These two models are incompatible, the result is a competition between the conservatives and liberals where the winner will get the spoils and the losers get nothing. • See it as a fight for their economic life through a battle for political supremacy. • Each group built a strong base of support o 1) liberals: tried to build support among indeginous people (militias- patron client relationship= clientelism- system of social relations where one party buys the support of the client through specific incentives, can also have a coercive element) and the landless criollos. The liberals promised both groups something in return for their loyal and unflinching support. o 2) conservatives: do the same thing,
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