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Lecture 4

Pols342 week 4 lec 1 Jan 28.docx

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Political Studies
POLS 342
Normand Perreault

Pols342 week 4 lec 1 Jan 28/2014 • Short paper: don’t ask a question that covers everything try to make sure that it is not too narrow. Don’t answer thequestion, only have to explain why its important and how it helps us to understand Latin America, how its useful. Use lecture and reading material. • Economic history conclusion o Late 19 century LA is doing well because of the Long depression their products are finding new products and making money and immigration is occurring, modernization is taking place, population is booming. It’s a good time from an economic and political point of view.  Columbia, Argentina there is a succession of democratic governments elected peacefully. o 1945: full of hope for the future, it look poised to replicate the miracle of the US, to develop industrially, modernize politically etc.  But it doesn’t happen, because in the 1940s Americans rebuild world trade by asking SA to open its borders and expose it to competition for ISI=ELD  SA countries with the exception of brazil will take the bait in order to sell raw materials and food stuff for large sums which lead to unemployment, impoverished working class, discontented and fearful bourgeoisie which provided opportunity for landed aristocracy to undermine democracy. o 1960s: the emergence of BA regimes in Brazil, Uruguay, argentina etc was a result of US actions. o 1945-1980  ISI is exposed to world competition and declines  Argentina is typical case….  We have the deindustrialization 0f SA= increased poverty, and decreased social wealth… o However, Brazil has a large internal domestic market and it refuses to give up ISI. The result is that today it is an up and coming economy. o 1970s: the oil shocks will hurt economies significantly by increasing the cost …..  The debt crisis: in an effort to compensate for the oil shocks and…..many of these countries will borrow billions of dollars from the north. Ended up leading SA countries back to ELD.  : regan starts a worldwide recession to fight inflation (create unemployment=reduce disposable income that people have= lower demands for goods= companies lower price of products) • At the time US was the consumer of all other countries, so once they go down so does everyone else. o ……. o After crisis SA are scrambling to find income to repay loans, this means they started looking for quick cash. This meant they would sell anything. Borrowed money to develop industry in 70s but in 80s they …… o Brazil is different  Has continued to protect its own industry while still exporting  The others like Chile, depend essentially on export of raw materials and agricultural products.  Economics dictates politics in others it’s the opposite. • The organic tradition o There is cultural tradition and peoples ability to deviate from it. Cultural traditions do matter beaus eit creates a set of rules, perceptions that dictates how we react to things that happens. However people have shown they are able to adopt new things when it is absolutely necessary. o Today democracy is defined in anglo-saxon terms  Out form is characterized by individuality, privatism, egotism, utility maximization and an atomistic view of social relations (ie. The unit of analysis is the individual.) o Alternative view of democracy  Have traditionally ridiculed it (us in north America)  SA model is based on Rousseau and his concept of general will • We tend to think that his version is flawed and have ridiculed it because it leads to dictatorship. • However, his ideas underpin our democratic style in certain aspects… • The reason why we like our democracy is because we believe it promotes certain ideals, and these Rousseauian ideals……are actually the same ideals that democracy in SA emphasizes as well. th o Its only in the 20 century that SA democracy went wrong  Traditionally have had success with it  In the last 30 years they have gotten rid of dictatorship= the ultimate democratic achievement, and they have actively protested, voted, created new institutions, new referenda.  We need to accept that they might have as much fervor in regards to democracy as we do. o History  Thousand years ago • The great chain of life: animals are creatures of god, the chain starts with god and then all the creatures of god are entitled legal rights. The laws of humans applys to animals and they deserve respect. o About organic unity, we are all part of the entity called the universe because we are all gods creatures. o There is compatibility god created us with the hope that we will be in harmony with each other. There is a premise that when the universe is set right there is harmony, also an element of dependence because each organism depends on each other. o This is seen when the Church arrives in SA and sees the indigenous people as part of the great chain of life and thus deserving of protection. This is why in the Spanish part of SA the indigenous are granted rights and not allowed to be enslaved.  Different then what happened in the US: the Indians were to be eliminated and exterminated, the intent was different. o The Spanish model continues to embrace this model (the great chain of Life). The kings and queens of spain convert and allow the mixing
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