Pols342 week 4 lec 1 Jan 28/2014
• Short paper: don’t ask a question that covers everything try to make sure that it is not too
narrow. Don’t answer thequestion, only have to explain why its important and how it
helps us to understand Latin America, how its useful. Use lecture and reading material.
• Economic history conclusion
o Late 19 century LA is doing well because of the Long depression their products
are finding new products and making money and immigration is occurring,
modernization is taking place, population is booming. It’s a good time from an
economic and political point of view.
Columbia, Argentina there is a succession of democratic governments
o 1945: full of hope for the future, it look poised to replicate the miracle of the US,
to develop industrially, modernize politically etc.
But it doesn’t happen, because in the 1940s Americans rebuild world
trade by asking SA to open its borders and expose it to competition for
SA countries with the exception of brazil will take the bait in order to sell
raw materials and food stuff for large sums which lead to unemployment,
impoverished working class, discontented and fearful bourgeoisie which
provided opportunity for landed aristocracy to undermine democracy.
o 1960s: the emergence of BA regimes in Brazil, Uruguay, argentina etc was a
result of US actions.
ISI is exposed to world competition and declines
Argentina is typical case….
We have the deindustrialization 0f SA= increased poverty, and decreased
o However, Brazil has a large internal domestic market and it refuses to give up
ISI. The result is that today it is an up and coming economy.
o 1970s: the oil shocks will hurt economies significantly by increasing the cost …..
The debt crisis: in an effort to compensate for the oil shocks and…..many
of these countries will borrow billions of dollars from the north. Ended up
leading SA countries back to ELD. : regan starts a worldwide recession to fight inflation (create
unemployment=reduce disposable income that people have= lower
demands for goods= companies lower price of products)
• At the time US was the consumer of all other countries, so once
they go down so does everyone else.
o After crisis SA are scrambling to find income to repay loans, this means they
started looking for quick cash. This meant they would sell anything. Borrowed
money to develop industry in 70s but in 80s they ……
o Brazil is different
Has continued to protect its own industry while still exporting
The others like Chile, depend essentially on export of raw materials and
Economics dictates politics in others it’s the opposite.
• The organic tradition
o There is cultural tradition and peoples ability to deviate from it. Cultural traditions
do matter beaus eit creates a set of rules, perceptions that dictates how we react
to things that happens. However people have shown they are able to adopt new
things when it is absolutely necessary.
o Today democracy is defined in anglo-saxon terms
Out form is characterized by individuality, privatism, egotism, utility
maximization and an atomistic view of social relations (ie. The unit of
analysis is the individual.)
o Alternative view of democracy
Have traditionally ridiculed it (us in north America)
SA model is based on Rousseau and his concept of general will
• We tend to think that his version is flawed and have ridiculed it
because it leads to dictatorship.
• However, his ideas underpin our democratic style in certain
aspects… • The reason why we like our democracy is because we believe it
promotes certain ideals, and these Rousseauian ideals……are
actually the same ideals that democracy in SA emphasizes as
o Its only in the 20 century that SA democracy went wrong
Traditionally have had success with it
In the last 30 years they have gotten rid of dictatorship= the ultimate
democratic achievement, and they have actively protested, voted, created
new institutions, new referenda.
We need to accept that they might have as much fervor in regards to
democracy as we do.
Thousand years ago
• The great chain of life: animals are creatures of god, the chain
starts with god and then all the creatures of god are entitled legal
rights. The laws of humans applys to animals and they deserve
o About organic unity, we are all part of the entity called the
universe because we are all gods creatures.
o There is compatibility god created us with the hope that we
will be in harmony with each other. There is a premise that
when the universe is set right there is harmony, also an
element of dependence because each organism depends
on each other.
o This is seen when the Church arrives in SA and sees the
indigenous people as part of the great chain of life and
thus deserving of protection. This is why in the Spanish
part of SA the indigenous are granted rights and not
allowed to be enslaved.
Different then what happened in the US: the
Indians were to be eliminated and exterminated,
the intent was different.
o The Spanish model continues to embrace this model (the
great chain of Life). The kings and queens of spain convert
and allow the mixing