PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Joint Attention, Teddy Bear, 18 Months

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
Week 5 Self and Others: A Comparative Perspective
Development of the Self
At 2-4 months agency
At 9-12 months joint attention and social referencing
At 18 months pass the rouge test
Terrible twos-differentiating (at 18 months, where they learn that word no, disagreeing
with the parents)
Narrative and autobiographical memory helps build sense of continuous self
Descriptions of Self
preschool children’s learn to describe themselves such as their attributes, abilities,
tend to use concrete things, such as brown hair, blue eyes, my favourite color is red,
elementary school children begin to use social comparisons, such as better than, more
clothes than, etc
high school students tend to have a larger awareness of conflicting attributes, start
focusing on non-tangible things, their personalities, whether they`re smart, good
conflicting attributes begin to resolve as they become older
Begin and tend to realize that they are different depending on certain situations and
begin to generalize themselves
Start to unify separate traits into high-order descriptors
When students enter grade 9, individuals become really self-centred, another phase of
egocentrism a personal fable and imaginary audience (everybody`s watching and
evaluating you, being judgemental and making themselves seem like the `princess` of a
Identity Formation
Read notes on Week 4
Theory of Mind study of other people’s thoughts
The precursor to theory of mind is joint attention, social referencing, understanding
preferences and intended actions
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Joint attention the mutual understand between two on the focus of an object by
the alerting of eye-gazing or perhaps pointing, anything non-verbal
Social Referencing understanding that a certain figure, eg. Parental has more
knowledge of certain matters and they will go to them for aid
Understanding Preferences age 14-18 months? the understanding that no
everyone enjoys or likes the same things
Intended Actions eg. If someone drops a coffee mug by accident while attempting
to place it on a desk
Kids are presented with the task to do what the experiment truly intended to
Refer to figure 5.17 understanding intention tasks (teddy bear and ball)
Strongly related to executive functioning but not completely
Card Sort task
Blue and red bunnies and red and blue trucks on cards
Usually tell the children to sort them into colors, after 10 trials of this sorting they
tell them to sort them by shape
End up still sorting them by color
Cognitive flexibility inability to stop thinking about what they know in the present
and relieve their old thoughts
The more older siblings you have, the quicker you will develop theory of mind
Eg. They try to trick you, make you take the blame etc and therefore develops
theory of mind earlier to ``protect `` themselves
One of the major problems in children with autism
In non humans
Researched to see if chimps have the same thought processes as humans
Experiment where chimps can move boxes around in the middle, a dominant
chimp is on one side and a less dominant chimp on the other side
The less dominant chimp will approach food that is hidden when the more
dominant chimp isn`t looking
They will also go to the food when it is moved to another box when the
dominant chimp isn`t looking
They also understand when new dominant chimps are brought in and will go
after the hidden food as they know the new chimp does not know where it is
Will not approach the food when there are multiple pieces of food and the
dominant chimp does not approach either
Covids move cache when they`re seen hiding to prevent food from being taken
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