PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Albert Bandura, Little Albert Experiment, Sex Doll

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
Week 4 : Major Theories of Developmental Psychology
(more or less copied from ppt after erikson)
All we can do is make associations and we learn from them, eg. Rewarded or punished for
John Watson`s quote focused on child development the most can turn them into
anything as long as they are of an average or normal intelligence by reinforcing their
Little Albert experiment Watson induced a really bad fear of anything white and fluffy into
a child named Albert
Banged a gong anytime a white rabbit came up to him, become deathly afraid to a white
fluffy hat of his mothers
Nobody tried to remove that fear of him and they let him into the world with that fear
Skinner talked about development psychology
Two things that are vital in the upbringing of a child
Attention can be a powerful reinforce eg. They are crying and you are paying
attention it reinforces the crying and whining
Intermittent reinforcement (unpredictable) is the most resistance to extinction
Eg. You are at a supermarket and your child freaks out after you denying them a
chocolate bar, you give it to them because you don’t want the attention from
others such as workers
Bandura-bobo Doll experiment name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in
studying aggression
Showed kids video of someone beating up an inflatable doll in a specific and predictable
way and the partiicpants imitated the behaviour depending on if the model was
rewarded or not
Social cognitive theory arose from behaviourism and the importance of seeing
whether others are rewarded or punished
Piaget’s Legacy – grandfather of cognitive development , first person to talk about how kids
developed knowledge and how they interact with others in their world while testing them
in a systematic way
Wrong about many things and right about many others generated a lot of research
Huge impact on the field, but more on education than psychology
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Constructivist Theory kids learn better constructing and focusing on projects on their
own interests as opposed to passively sitting there and absorbing info
Stage theorist children/kids develop via stages and are very different in thinking on
each stage (discontinuous) but their learning is a continuous process
Piagetian Processes
Assimilation integrate new info into existing schemes (relating new theories to things
they know about)
Accommodation change schemes with new info
Equilibration balances assimilation and accommodation, there is no discrepancy
between their understanding of the world and experiences
At disequilibrium the discrepancy is understood which leads to better
Piagets’ “Stages”
Sensorimotor (Birth 2 Years)
Tied to senses and motor ability
Can only think about what is occurring at the moment
Lack of object permanence they don’t understand that objects do not continue to
exist when hidden
Pre-operational thought (2-7 years)
not very logical, can only focus on 1 aspect of a problem at a time (eg. If you pour x
volume of water from a cup into a larger or smaller container, they wouldn`t
understand that it is still the same volume even though it appears smaller or larger)
very egocentric, only see things from their own perspective
not very good drawers but can do so simply, eg. Stick figures and car outlines
does not understand reversible processes
Concrete operational thought (7-12 years)
Can perform operations and understand reversible processes such as the water
problem above
Their thought processes is still limited to tangible materials hence the name
Becomes less egocentric
Able to focus on two + aspects of a problem at once
Still stimulus bound, experiment must be done in front of them tangibly
Formal operational thought (12 years +)
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