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Lecture 4

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Conditioned Taste Aversion, Reinforcement, Classical Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Jordan Poppenk
Lecture
4

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Learning
Classical Conditioning
- Started with Ivan Pavlov
- linking one stimulus from another
- Rings bell for dog right before food is given every day
- After a long period of time, the dog will be trained to salivate with just the bell being
rung and without the presence of food
- Start with unconditioned stimulus (food) which will illicit an unconditioned response
(salivating)
- Combine neutral stimulus (bell) with unconditioned stimulus which will still get
unconditioned response
- Eventually, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus which will give
conditioned response (salivating without food)
- Can replace conditioned stimulus without another by accompanying the conditioned
stimulus with a neutral stimulus
- Eventually, the neutral stimulus will become a second conditioned stimulus
- Conditioned taste aversion- having a bad experience with a certain taste can make you
not want to experience this taste again
- Spontaneous recovery- dog may still salivate from bell even after experiment has
ended
Operant Conditioning
- a behaviour relates to an outcome
Thorndike’s law of effect- responses that produce a satisfying effect are more likely to occur
again, and responses that produce a discomforting effect are less likely to occur again
Skinner’s three-term contingency- antecedent, behaviour, contingency
- Positive or negative reinforcement increase behaviour
- Positive or negative punishment decrease behaviour
- Positive is adding, negative is removing
Terms
Learning- a permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential that results from
experience
Contingencies- a predictive relationship (both types of conditioning)
Shaping- successively reward behaviours that relate to what you’re trying to achieve and don’t
reward behaviours that don’t
Discrimination- in classical example, only ring the conditioned bell when the dog gets food and
ring bells at other frequencies when the food isn’t being given to make sure the dog is only
conditioned for one specific frequency bell
Behaviourist view- learners retain behaviours through reinforcement
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