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Lecture 14

PSYCH 100 Lecture 14.docx

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PSYC 100

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PSYCH Lecture Week 14 Genetics and Intelligence The basic unit of heredity is called a: gene.  The question used to be: Is nature or nurture responsible for development? Now the question is: How do nature and nurture interact to affect development? Nature: genes we receive from our parents. Nurture: all of the physical and social environment. Genotype: The nucleus of every cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.  • Genes are sections of the chromosomes • Each gene is a segment of the DNA that codes for a production of one particular  protein. • 22 of these pairs are roughly equal and carry the same gene sequences relevant to  same traits. Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotype – the complete set of genes that you inherit from your parents Phenotype – the observable expression of your genotype including both appearance and  behaviour. Phenotype affected by environment even before conception. Most human genetics depend on a single gene: false! Most genetics depend on many  genes combined. Heritability The degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a particular population is a  result of genetic differences among those organisms. • Not individuals but groups. • Intelligence studied a great deal: heritability estimate of 50%. • Remember that genes only code for proteins. • Only applies to a particular group living in a particular environment at a particular  point in time. Behavioural Genetics • Tease apart environmental and genetic contributions • Family, twin and adoption studies • Ideal behavioural genetics study combines twin and adoption. On average, behavioural­genetics studies estimate the heritability of intelligence to be:  higher for adults than children.  Intelligence • An individual’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to he  environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning,  and to overcome obstacles through mental effort. • What and how is controversial. Is intelligence one thing or many Fluid vs. Crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence decreases with age. Fluid intelligence has to do with acquiring new  ways to overcome obstacles. Alter your behaviour thanks to new knowledge. Crystallized intelligence is knowledge. The acquiring of information. Gardner­theory of multiple intelligences Popular in the field of education – littl
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