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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Wilhelm Wundt, Western Philosophy, Natural Selection


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Caroline F Pukall
Lecture
1

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LESSON 1
Psychologists
Applied psychologists work as non-academics (clinical, government, advertising)
Psychologists carry out or read and apply research about behaviour and mental processes
Psychologists study mental processes and behaviour
Psychology most closely related to Biology
Philosophical Roots of Psychology
Psychology has roots in Western philosophy, which originated with the ancient Greeks.
Greek philosopher questions “Do people have free will?”, “Are people good or evil?”
Rationalism – Pursuit of truth through reason and logic.
Plato’s work had talks between Socrates + students: “Do our perceptions equal reality?”
Through logic, Socrates found that our perceptions are not always the same as reality
Empiricism: Observe phenomenon, collect data, interpret it, come to conclusions; belief
that people can describe world through rules made by observation, quantification, and
principle of parsimony
Empiricism most likely to reject idea that mental events are appropriate subject for psych
Rationalism is to logic, as empiricism is to observation
Psychophysicists measure relationship between changes in magnitude of physical energy
in a stimulus (e.g., light intensity) and our sensation of the changes in stimulus magnitude
(e.g., how we perceive its brightness). Groceries made heavier as you walk to car
Helmholtz and Fechner contributed to beginning of psychophysics
Founding fathers of psychology: Wilhelm Wundt and William James
Wundt and followers focused on smaller elements that make up human experience
James and fellows focused on advantages resulting from different human attributes
Wundt, von Helmholtz, Fechner now considered structuralists, emphasize elemental
constituents of experience
Structuralism is to elements of consciousness; functionalism is to purpose of
consciousness
Took lead from physics and chemistry, attempted to understand perception by dissecting
it into its component sensations, then cataloguing and exploring them.
Introspection was one tool, but importance of introspection often overemphasized.
Hallmark of structuralist view is analysis –if we can break things down into simpler parts
and understand these, then we can understand the whole.
William James: medical doctor, philosopher, physiologist; studied aspects of psychology
In 1890, his classic textbook The Principles of Psychology was published.
Tip-of-tongue phenomenon-word on tip of tongue named by James
Natural selection most important for studying functions of behaviour
Functionalism emphasizes not the elemental structure of processes, but their purpose
For example, take the perception of an apple. Structuralists would focus on the elemental
components of the perception they would say that you didn’t perceive AN APPLE
you perceived redness, and roundness, sweetness, and crunchiness.
In contrast, a functionalist might think about why we perceive apples.
Structuralism and functionalism different; focus on different aspects of a phenomenon
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