PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Parenting Styles, Diana Baumrind, 18 Months
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Week #16: Social Development
Observational Learning: much of what we learn about how to exist in our social
world is through observing and imitating other people called models.
The Social Brain: an idea that was put forth to explain the evolution of intelligence.
According to this hypothesis, the reason species with large developed brains is to
meet the cognitive demands of social living. These species do not compete just to
survive but for interpersonal attention and resources.
Inductive Discipline: guiding behaviours, including appropriate limits, and setting up
consequences while also explaining why. This method involves highlighting the
consequences of actions for others while disciplining the child.
Baumrind: identified four parenting styles:
1. Authoritarian: highly demanding of their children, inflexible about deviations
from expected behaviour, and less responsive to their child’s needs. They tend
to discipline using threats and punishment and are much more likely to use
2. Permissive Parents: place very few demands on their children but are highly
responsive to them. They believe children learn best on their own without
structure imposed on them by adults.
3. Rejecting-Neglectful Parents: disengaged from their children and are neither
demanding of them nor responsive to them. They do not set limits for their
children, do not monitor their activities, and may actively discourage them.
4. Authoritative Parents: highly demanding of their children and highly responsive
to them. They are unlikely to physically discipline their children and will more
often explain the reasons behind the rules they have laid out for them.
Imprinting: occurs quickly after birth where the newborn organism forms a rapid and
powerful bond to its mother. It is advantageous because it ensures the newborn will
remain close to its main source of safety and nourishment - its mother.
Separation Experiment: Bowlby studied the mental health of young children who
were institutionalized after being separated from their families in World War II. He
observed that all the children went through similar stages:
1. First they became frantic and upset
2. then they despaired
3. If no new stable relationship took place of the relationship they held with their
parents they would eventually become despondent and uninterested in other
Attachment: social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both
time and space. This bond is formed in 4 stages:
1. Pre-attachment phase: begins at birth and extends to six weeks of age. Infants
remain in close contact with their caregivers, reliant on them for food,
protection, and comfort. Infants do not display signs of distress when left in the
care of someone who is not the primary caregiver.
2. Attachment-in-the-Making: begins at six weeks of age and extends to six to
eight months of age. Infants begin to treat people differently, showing more
preferences for familiar people. They may become wary of or nervous around
unfamiliar people, animals, or objects. Bowlby believed that during this time
infants form expectations for their parent-child relationship.
3. Clear-Cut Attachment: starts between six to eight months of age and ends
around 18 months. Infants actively seek comfort from their caregivers.
Caregivers become a secure base for the infant. The infant may start to display