PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Eidetic Memory, Long-Term Memory, Tape Recorder

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16 Aug 2016
Department
Course
U4 L11
Cognitive Psychology - Memory
Encoding
- Identify and define the three components of memory
- Explain the effects of different levels of processing and types of elaboration on encoding
Method of Loci
- aka Memory Palace/Memory Walk
- A way of remembering a series of sequence of items by first memorizing a location, and then
establishing a walk or sequence through that location, and finally placing the elements to be
remembered in each spot of the walk i.e. landmarks
Metaphors of memory
-Photographic memory → to remember something as clearly as a photograph
-Treasure house → different rooms for memories (i.e. Grunkle Stan’s mindscape)
-Mechanical Piano → memory replays info laid down at an earlier time (like a pipe organ)
-Phonograph → memory reproduces sound engraved in wax
-Photograph → a memory is faithfully registered information on light-sensitive film
-Tape recorder → memory is a continuous, ongoing record of the stream of consciousness
-Filing Cabinet → information is stored away like files, organized by topic, then pulled out again when needed
(like Spongebob’s brain)
-Hologram → a ghost image of the remembered event is stored in a highly distributed fashion
-Computer → memories are like data input via keyboard, stored on a hard drive, and retrieved by calling up
required data (kinda like the Matrix)
Three Components of Memory
-Encoding → the process by which perceptions, thoughts, and feelings are transformed into memory
-Storage → the process of maintaining information in memory over time
-Retrieval → the process by which information that was previously encoded and stored is brought to mind
Construction and Elaboration
-Construction → Creation of a new story from an original story
-Elaboration → the degree to which information is specified, described, and/or related to other information in
memory
- Memories are not records of events, but often reconstructions that are guided to some extent by his
listeners’ common-sense knowledge or preconceived ideas (their schema)
- we only remember bits and pieces and make up the rest of our memories, much like how we construct
our perceptions from sensations
Encoding
- records experiences, thoughts and feelings
- we only encode memory we pay attention to
- the more you process information, the more deeply you encode it and the easier it is to retrieve later.
This is the central idea of levels of processing
Levels of Processing
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