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Lecture 1

PSYC 235 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Prefrontal Cortex, Critical Role, Grandiosity

Course Code
PSYC 235
Meredith Chivers

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Psych 235 Guest Lecture 1
Schizophrenic patient
Actual auditory hallucinations vs convincing oneself of purpose through own individual
thoughts. Schizo-affective (less likely to have auditory hallucinations)
- Seasonal effects
- Meds are single most important thing not many behavioural therapies and other
techniques do as much.
The fixed, false beliefs common in psychosis
- Paranoia
- Grandiosity; feelings of having special powers, talents or abilities ect
- Delusions of reference (can be firmly held, w/o the reality that they have them),
Excess dopamine in the reward centres thought to play a critical role.
A. Everything becomes rewarding
B. Excess dopamine in striatal regions but reduced dopamine available in the
prefrontal cortex leads to cognitive impairments (reduced = negative sym/
excess = positive sym).
- Delusions often form when they are trying to figure out why everything is so
important to them (Too much dopamine makes irrelevant info seem important). Trying
to make sense of things that don’t have reason. Cognitive biases result in forming
explanations with too little evidence, and refusing to consider contrary evidence
Those with schizophrenia are much more likely to confirm their beliefs earlier, making
faster decisions and ruling out other possibilities faster. This makes it harder to change
ideas later. -> False fixed beliefs. Delusions persist.
Auditory: Critical, or commanding voice (associated with bad remission).
Perceptual Distortions or Attribution Errors? Often perceived, as an external
source but is internal.
Earlier on in 1930s found that patients were moving lips subtly when experiencing
hallucinations therefore concluding that maybe the hallucinations are their own
thoughts. Recoding throat mumbles and playing back ->- auditory hallucinations.
Why did they misattribute their own thoughts as external events?
People w/ schizophrenia have a disconnect between their Broca’s and Wernicke’s area
(producing and understanding language).
Abnormal white matter.
Failure to recognize the source of info:
Errors in Source monitoring Predict 2-year
- incorrectly attributing words they said out loud (internal) as something they hear
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