PSYC 235 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Hypomania, Mania, Cyclothymia

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Published on 7 Aug 2012
School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 235
1/27/2012 8:22:00 AM
Mania
A) A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or
irritable mood, lasting at least a week
B) 3 or more of the following symptoms:
a. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
(think they can accomplish anything)
b. Decreased need for sleep (deny sleep / noticeable in appearance
c. Pressured speech (difficulty in pitch and speed when talking)
d. Flight of ideas (disconnection of ideas / all over the place)
e. Distractibility
f. Increase in goal-directed activity or agitation (write a novel)
g. Excessive involvement in risky activities (impulsive shopping)
Hypomanic Episode
A) A distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood,
lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usual
nondepressed mood
- Note, in contrast to Manic, the absence of “abnormally…”
and 4 days vs. 1 week
B) Exactly the same as Manic and exactly the same number required,
except delusions/hallucinations cannot be present
C) …unequivocal change in functioning…
D) Disturbance in mood and change in fx observable by others
E) The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in
social or occupational fx, or to necessitate hospitalization, and there ae
no psychotic feature.
The Bipolar Disorders
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Document Summary

Hypomanic episode: a distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usual nondepressed mood. Bipolar i: mania + major depression (usually) Bipolar ii: hypomania + major depression: rapid-cycling bipolar: 4+ episodes per year (higher disability, lower treatment response) Cyclothymic disorder: hypomania + subthreshold depression (moderate depression) Norepinephrine increased during mania, decreased during depression (cause/product?) Serotonin system diminishment might relate to dopaminergic hyperactivity: dopaminergic agonists exacerbate manic symptoms, 10% of mania follows morning after sleep deprivation, which is associated with dopamine hypersensitivity, evidence for greater sensitivity to reward. Amygdala: identifies the significance of emotional stimuli. Diminished activity in the hippocampus and pfc probably play a role in the failure to encode relevant information and regulate amyggala. Pfc is crucial for goal setting, planning, and inhibition. Basal ganglia (a reward pathway structure) is overactive.

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