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Lecture 8

PSYC 251 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: One-Child Policy, Parenting Styles, Anti-Social Behaviour

Course Code
PSYC 251
Stanka A Fitneva

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PSYC 251 March 6, 2018
Module 8
Family and Peer Relationships
Effects of China’s One Child Policy
- Only children perform better on test of academic performance and intelligence
- No evidence for more behavioural problems in only children
- Only children aren’t more prone to depression and anxiety
- No difference between only children and sibling children re. personality and social
behaviour, including getting along with others, aggression, and lying
Family Structure
- Family structure = number of and relationships among people living in a household
- Changes to family structure can influence interactions between family members and
affect routines, norms, and child’s emotional well-being
- Effects of changes in family structure are typically gradual but, catastrophic events like
divorce and death can cause drastic behavioural and emotional changes
Family Dynamics
- Socialization = process through which children acquire values, standards, skills,
knowledge, and behaviours that are regarded as appropriate
- Parents typically want their child to make values-based decisions, to have self-assurance
to follow their dreams, and to be generous and giving toward others
- Discipline = set of strategies and behaviours parents use to teach children to behave
- Parental discipline is effective when…
o The child stops engaging in an undesirable behaviour
o Engages in preferred behaviour
o Leads to permanent change in child’s behaviour because child has learned and
accepted desired behaviour (aka. internalization = process of adopting as one’s
own attributes, desires, and standards of another person)
- Other-Oriented Induction = reasoning focused on the effects of behaviour on other people
is most effective at promoting internalization
o Teaches empathy for others, a foundational skill for acting prosocially
- Reasoning and other-oriented induction have been linked with greater social competence
in children
- Reasoning is the most common form of discipline (3/4 of American parents use it)
- Internalization occurs best when parents apply the perfect amount of psychological
o Too little and the child will discount parents’ message and do what they want
o Too much and the child will comply only because they are forced to, which lets
them attribute compliance to an external force rather than internalizing the reason
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PSYC 251 March 6, 2018
Module 8
for doing so; the child will then only act how they should when they might be
seen by the parent
- Discipline techniques that apply too much psychological/physical pressure are not
effective at promoting internalization
- Punishment = negative stimulus that follow a behaviour to reduce the likelihood that the
behaviour will occur again
o Makes clear that the parent disapproves of the misbehaviour
o Don’t teach child how to behave in the future
o Mild punishments can provide just enough pressure for internalization but, often
all you need is a disapproving look from a parent for a child to comply
- Research indicates that spanking is not effective at teaching children how to behave and
is linked with a range of negative consequences in children, as well as other forms of
punishment, like yelling, time-out, and taking away privileges/love
Baumrind’s Four Parenting Styles
- Most parents can be classified based on the style they use to guide their chidren
- Educators can fall into similar patterns and so, can be classified
- Differ on high/low levels of responsiveness, warmth and supportiveness
- Differ on high/low behavioural control and demandingness
- Authoritative
o High responsiveness/warmth and behavioural control
o Set limits and enforce rules BUT, they explain reasoning behind rules
o Listen to children’s requests, respect their questions
o Offer choices ie. do you want broccoli or carrots (the child has to eat veggies but
they can pick which they want to eat)
o Combine control with encouragement
o Sensitive to children’s abilities and set reasonable expectation standards
according to those abilities
o Child is autonomous within limits set by parents
- Authoritarian
o Low responsiveness/warmth and high behavioural control
o Military environment (firm rules and regulations without affection and warmth)
o Parents have absolute control who value unquestioned obedience and respect
o Parents control children’s behaviours and actions
o Bad behaviour is punished (clear consequences for not following rules)
o Affection and praise are rarely provided
- Permissive
o High responsiveness/warmth and low behavioural control
o Lax discipline and rarely use punishment
o Few demands placed on children
o Friends, instead of parents
o Warm and loving but again, more like friends
o Children tend to walk all over their parents
- Rejecting-Neglecting
o Low responsiveness/warmth and low behavioural control
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PSYC 251 March 6, 2018
Module 8
o Parents are disengaged
Low involvement in children’s lives
o Parents more concerned about their own problems
o This style often seen in young/teen parents
o Common among parents with characteristics of depression
- Important to note that child’s behaviour can shape parents’ typical parenting style, with a
study showing that a rise in adolescents’ externalizing problems and internalizing
problems correlating to a decline in parents’ authoritative parenting styles
- Most research shows that parents don’t necessarily fall into one of the four categories but
rather, choose which style works best for them based on context
Outcomes of Parenting Styles
- Authoritative Outcomes
o Style is the best with regards to positive child outcomes
o Children
Toddlers have higher levels of adaptive skills (social and communication
More competent, self-assured, and popular with peers
Meet parents’ expectations
Low in antisocial behavioural
o Adolescents
Higher in social competence
Higher in academic competence
Higher in self-reliance
Strong coping skills
Less drug use and problem behaviours
- Authoritarian Outcomes (studies done on CAD children of European descent)
o Children
Score lower in social and academic competence
More unhappy and unfriendly
Low in self-confidence
Boys are more likely to show negative effects than girls
o Adolescents
Higher rates of negative effects in school
Ineffective coping strategies with everyday stressors
Higher rates of delinquency, depression, aggression, and alcohol
- Permissive Outcomes
o Children
Impulsive (low self-control)
Higher rates of externalizing problems
Low in school achievement
o Adolescents
More school misconduct
Higher rates of drug and alcohol use
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