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Psychology Week 13 Lecture Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Psychology Week 13 - What makes something language? 1. It’s symbolic 2. It can be used to communicate novel ideas  The way we combine the set of words changes the meaning 3. It can be used to communicate about something not happening here and now o These three criteria can be referred to as (1) semanticity, (2) generativity and (3) displacement o Language is complicated o It must meet the three criteria to be considered language - Types of linguistic knowledge 1. Phonology  Sounds in a language  A phoneme is defined as the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word  E.g.: sip vs. zip, bit vs. pit, chop vs. shop, rice vs. lice, bath, bait, bought, boat, bit, bite, bet, beat but, boot,…  5000+ living languages  Hawaiian – 5 vowels, 8 consonants  English – 40+ phonemes (many vowels_  Some languages – 100+ phonemes  Learn to perceive phonemes based on the language/languages we are exposed to during development – house that speak French and English then you learn the sounds that are in French and English  Makes it difficult for an adult to learn the new language  Rice and lice are two similar words, but we can distinguish between them 2. Morphology  Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning in language  Free morpheme – any thing that can stand alone ex. Help  Bound morpheme – what we attach to a free morpheme ex. Prefixes and suffixes  Help, helping, helps, helped, helpful, helper, helpless  Establish, establishment, establishmentarian, disestablishmentarian, antidisestablishmentarian, antidisestablishmentarianism 3. Syntax  Grammar or rules on how we combine words with one another  The girl kicked the ball *girl kicked ball *kicked the girl ball the  Decide the correct order of the words in a sentence  Decide what morphines we add to a word 4. Semantics  Joe broke up with Mary – Joe dumped Mary – Joe and Mary are no longer a couple  All the sentences communicate the same idea/underline meaning 5. Pragmatics  Helps intended meaning – tone of voice, body language  Knowledge of the world  Social rules of language  Refers to the interaction between what the person trying to communicate knows and what the person being communicated to know  What is the relationship between the two people? And what knowledge do they both have?  Helps comprehend intended meaning rather than explicit meaning  Communicate more than what is explicitly said through context, tone of voice, body language, etc… o Stop Smoking, please! o Whew this room could use a air purifier o Perhaps you’d like to step out? o Do you think you could smoke a little more in here? Form idea and decide to speak Choose Meaning Apply syntax and Morphology -p Processing Map words onto motor Sequence -own Processing Bottom Top Move Mouth, teeth, tongue, vocal folds, etc… Acoustic Signal Comprehend Utterance Analyze Syntax Recognize words and Associate Meanings Up Processing - Map sounds onto phonemes/syllables -own Processing Bottom Top Analyze Acoustic Signal Acoustic Signal Overview of the brain - There are parts of the brain that deal with speech more than any other part of the brain, but no specific part that deals completely with speech - Left hemisphere is (usually) dominant for language - Knowing how why the left hemisphere is more dominant/what to study: o Symptoms of patients with focal brain lesions (tumors/ strokes) o Results of language tests after a ‘reversible lesion’ is indu
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