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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Ada Mullett - Genetics and Intelligence - Lifespan Development - Major Theories of Developmental Psychology - Self and Other: A Comparative Perspective - Social Development - Evolution, Heredity and Behaviour - Motivation and Emotion Genetics and Intelligence - The basic unit of heredity is called a gene - How do nature and nurture interact to affect development? - Nature: genes we receive from our parents - Nurture: all of the physical and social environment - Genotype: the nucleus of every cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes o Genes are sections of the chromosomes o Each gene is a segment of the DNA that codes for the production of one particular protein o Twenty two of these pairs are roughly equal and carry same gene sequences relevant to same traits - Genotypes: the complete set of genes that you inherit from your parents - Phenotype: the observable expression of your genotype including both appearance and behaviour – phenotype affected by environment and even before conception - Most human genetics traits DO NOT depend on a single gene - Heritability: the degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a particular population is a result of genetic differences among those organisms o Not individuals but groups o Intelligence studied a great deal: heritability estimate of 50% o Remember that genes only code for proteins o Only applies to a particular group of living in a particular environment at a particular point in time Behavioural Genetics - Tease apart environmental and genetic contributions - Family, twin, and adoption studies - Ideal behavioural genetic study combines twin and adoption - On average, behavioural genetics studies estimate the heritability of intelligence to be about 50% and is higher for adults than children - Intelligence o An individual’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to
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