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Week 15 Lecture Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Week 15 Lecture Notes: Lifespan Development - Childhood development has critical periods of development - Development o Systematic changes in behaviours and abilities that occur between the moment of conception and death o Change: continual and cumulative o Effects of one age have ramifications at other ages - Early stages of Development o Most rapid o Crucial periods of development in infants and children - Teratogens o Are toxins o Anything that has an adverse effect on development o Effects range from very mild to death o Many are only a problem if exposure occurs during sensitive period - DNA and Aging o There is a gene sequence to determine how fast our body ages o There is a difference between chronological age and biological age (genetic makeup and lifestyle factors) o One or two copies of the genetic sequence probably make less of the enzyme, called telomerase, when they are growing in the womb o Born with shorter telomeres, and so are prone to aging more quickly - Telomeres o Stained chromosomes (red) on a microscope slide o Telomere sequences (yellow) reside at the ends of each chromosome o Each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter o Too short, the cell no longer can divide and becomes inactive o Associated with aging, cancer, and a higher risk of death - Factors in aging include: telomere shortening, oxidative stress, time (chronological age), and sugars - Dementia o Normal aging: slight decrements in speed of processing, memory, and other cognitive abilities (cognitive decline) o Mild Cognitive Impairment: isolated impairments, usually in memory o Dementia: severe impairments in two or more cognitive domains, as well as functional decline - Diagnostic Criteria: Dementia o The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both  Memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information)  One (or more) of the following cognitive disturbances  Aphasia (language disturabce)  Apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function)  Agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function)  Disturbance in executive functioning (i
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