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Week 17 Lecture Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

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Week 17: Self and Others: A Comparative Perspective - Theory of the Mind o Helps us explain mental states of others o The ability to reason about what other people might know or believe and how those beliefs and knowledge will relate to their actions o Mental states of others are not directly observable, so we make predictions based on experience o Continuously trying to understand what people are doing - First Order Tests of Theory of Mind o By Baron-Cohen o Test of theory of mind o People who struggle with theory of mind, or autistic tend to fail the test – they believe that everyone knows what they know o Children four and up usually pass the test - Theory of Mind in Non-Humans o Less dominant chips will approach food:  When hidden when dominant not looking  When moved when dominant not looking  When new dominant chimp brought in o When the dominant chimp did not know where the food was, the focal chimp went to get the food o Covids (crows, ravens, blue jays) move cache (food) when seen hiding - Knower-Guesser Differentiation Ravens o By Thomas Bugnyar (2011) o Demonstrating mental attribution in non-human animals  Exploiting the birds’ tendency to remember and pilfer food catches they have seen others make  Ravens employ different behavioural tactics according to the information their competitors had during caching o Findings  Recognizing the other’s perception and/or knowledge state  Ability to memorize the other’s line of sight  Ravens go for the food that they are in competition for  Ravens will go to the food later if they know that another raven did not see the food  Ravens not only remember whom they have seen at aching but also take into account whether the other’s view was blocked - Magic o Magic tricks depend on magicians manipulating your point of focus, using theory of mind, we can easily be manipulated by someone else’s body movement o “You follow my gaze because you want to know what I’m seeing (you know that looking is seeing) and what state of knowledge or ignorance I’m in (you know that seeing is knowing).” o Having a Theory of Mind, in other words, means having the capacity  To go beyond the surface  Beyond the behaviour and the actions  To the intentions, the desires, the beliefs that motivate them o Magic works because of our mind-reading skills - Theory of Mind o From this “deeper” perspective, the world is not just made up of arms, legs, and eyes that move in coordinated fashion o Also made up of a host of mental states – your own and those of others – that direct and animate that those arms, legs, and eyes do o Theory of Mind involves automatic, unconscious, low-level processes that make up our “mind-reading abilities” - Satire: Requires ToM o The used of humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule…Witty language to convey insults or scorn o Way of criticizing people or ideas in a humorous way - Attribution o Explanation for an event of behaviour  Process is automatic and familiar – might not recognize it  Innate desire to understand causes of behaviours and outcomes o Attributions are not always accurate reflections of reality (they are perceptions) o Optimistic attribution style: people feel good about themselves and their capacity for success o Pessimistic attribution: opposite tendency o Attributions motivate behaviours we might not normally consider o Many timeless stories are based on notion of justifiable wrongdoings - Moral Development o Kids have to learn right from wrong o Emotional, cognitive, and behavioural components o Develop an internal conscience – gu
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