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Lecture 2

Week 22 Social Psychology, Part 1 Lecture Notes.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Chapter 15: Social Psychology, Part 1 - What is social psychology? o Focuses on the psychology of individuals within the social context o How our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours influence others and our self and vice versa  How do we influence others and how do others influence us? o Study of : how stereotypes are developed, romantic relationships, etc. - Men are more likely than women to aggress against their spouses or partners – FALSE – when male are aggressive, it is more impacting on women - An effective way to get someone to do you a favour is to first ask them to do something for you that is so large they will say no – TRUE – door in the phase technique, seems like you’re making a concession - When seeking a short-term mate, men think physical attractiveness is more important than women do – FALSE – they both value physical attractiveness the same amount in a short term relationship - Physically attractive people tend to be look on by others as less intelligent than physically unattractive people – FALSE – beautiful is good stereotype – attractive individuals have many personalities – halo effect, you’re good looking and so everything else is good about you - Female strippers make more tips when they are ovulating – TRUE – sexual behaviour intensified when conception is most likely to occur – evidence showing that females alter their behaviour naturally when they are most fertile – women tended to wear more provocative clothes when ovulating – men prefer the smell of t-shirt worn by women who were ovulating and the researchers found that men had a spike in testosterone levels when having ovulation - If a women is wearing a red shirt, men would find her more attractive than if she was wearing the same shirt in blue – TRUE – women wearing red or has red in the background is seen to be more attractive – red is associated with sex and passion, socioculutural perspective – female primates will have a red colour on their body when ovulating - If a white man were to witness a crime, his accuracy at identifying the perpetrator would be greater if the perpetrator was black (as opposed to white)- FALSE – cross race identification bias – tendency for individuals to have difficulty in identifying a race that is not their own, there is a false identification – stereotypes, generalizing - The greater cohesiveness or ‘we feeling’ in a group, the more likely the group will make a good decision – FALSE – groups that are extremely close usually make worse decisions, people share the same perspective so there is no one to play the devils advocate – if you had a different idea, you would not want to express it for fear of not being accepted - Wearing sunglasses can influence your moral behaviour - Isn’t social psychology just common sense? o Knew it all along phenomenon  “Of course, I already knew that. Anyone could have told me that.”  Social psychology is not common sense o Common sense often explains things after the fact – hindsight is 20/20 o Birds of a feather flock together – supported by research – attracted to people that you are similar to o Opposites attract - Attitudes and behaviours o Attitude Change  Three major theories of attitude change:  Message Learning Theory  The Elaboration Likelihood Model – two different root to persuasion – central root (influenced by content/strength of argument) and peripheral root to persuasion (how attractive the speaker is, how many arguments there are)  Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1956) o Possible the most widely studied theory in all of social psychology o People are motivated to maintain consistency among their cognitions (in their beliefs) o Want beliefs to be logically consistent with each other and want behaviours to be logically consistent with beliefs o When two cognitive elements are inconsistent with one another,
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