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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture 1: PSYC100 week3

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

PSYC week3 • Ultimate factor: explanation at the evolution level • Proximate factor: are the immediate causes and mechanism of the behavior • Behavior origins from: -nativism: from the genes (born with it) [nature] -empiricism: from the environment (through experience) [nurture] • Behavior genetics: the study of genetic influence on behavior • Chromosomes: -23 pairs -22 autosomes -X and Y sex chromosomes -male: XX -female: XY • Genes: regions of the chromosomes that encode particular proteins The points on the chromosomes that gene is located is called locus (may not exactly the same location) • Homozygous: the same location Heterozygous: the different location • Alleles: the alternative part of the same gene (arise by mutation and located on the same place of a chromosome) If alleles are different (heterozygous) one is dominant and another is recessive • Concordance: the expression of similarity in traits of twins Identical twins (monozygotic) and fraternal twins (dizygotic) • Genotype: genetic makeup of a trait (that we cant observed) • Phenotype: how the traits expressed (the way that we can observed) • Polygenetic: the traits that affected by more than one pair of genes • Single gene traits: some disorders are caused by mutation at a single gene locus. • Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes that occurs without a change in the DNA sequences (mutation). Can occur because of environmental experience • -correlation tell only that two factors are linked, not that one caused the other; the more other relevant variables can be isolated the more informative a correlation becomes -studies tell about population effect not individual effect -the polygenetic traits (such as height intelligence) the inheritance is not an all-or- nothing effect -not easy to separate nature (genetic) and nurture (environment), gene can be changed by environment and the environment can be affected by genes Heritability (0~1) and Variability • amount of variability in a given population at a given time due to genetic factors. -heritability is a population measure, and the result depends on the population studied • Developmental psychology: concerned with the environmental variance component, that is the prenatal and postnatal environmental influences that affect individuals during their lifetimes • Evolutionary psychology: concerned with the design of human nature, all human behavioral characteristics that are the product of natural selection in ancestral environments • Behavioral psychology: concerned with the partition of individual differences into genetic and environmental variance components • Evolution by nature selection produces adaptation: Features of organisms that have particular reproductive and survival function. • Naturalistic fallacy: determination should be based on what is natural, whatever is natural cannot be wrong we must accept things as they are • Genetic deterministic fallacy: the mistaken belief that if an organism evolves, that evolution is determined by genes rather than an interaction of genes and environment. -the belief that genes determine behavior independently of environment influences. Genetics and evolution: • Phenotype: the outward expression of an organism, physical characteristics and behavior • Fitness: the ability to both survive and reproduce • Sexual preference and four criteria -it maximizes attraction to and motivates behavior toward reproductively viable partners • Parental investment: the energy time resources and opportunity cost associated with producing offspring; Males have lower investment than females and lower cost as well Cuz female only produce one egg a month • Mating opportunity cost: missed additional mating opportunities as a result of investing in offspring if male choose to mate with one female then he has higher mating opportunity cost and low mating opportunity members of the sex that incur the higher minimum costs of parental investment have a lower potential reproductive than members of the other sex • Limitation on reproductive rate: access to other resources or support • Selection pressure to complete: the parent with the lower minimum parenting costs and thus the higher potential reproductive rate is under greater selection pressure to complete • Selection pressure: -the higher costs the lower selection pressure -the lower cost the higher selection pressure the more attractive the higher selection pressure -the sex often develops sex-specific morphological structures, such as antlers and behavioral tendencies, such as seeking mating opportunities • Ronald fisher: the ratio of parental investment in two sexes should be equal. Because each offspring is the product of a male and a female, members of the rarer sex will produce more reproductively successful than the members of the more common sex, resulting in an equal sex ratio at equilibrium • Polygyny: sexual behavior in which one male mates with more than one female
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