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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture 1: Psyc100 week4

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Psyc week4 Operational definition of learning: A more or less permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that result from experience (learning forgetting re-learning) • Origin of learning theory -Rene Descartes (nativist): claim that we were born the way we are and life experience play little or no role in shaping our behavior -Thomas Hobbes & John Locke (empiricist): claims that humans are born with no ideas or knowledge of behavior, they learn through experience • Response: behavioral reaction to stimulus • Pavlov’s experiment -Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): (the stimulus that evokes the behavioral response of interest that prior to any learning ) --- USC produces---Unconditioned Response (UCR): the reflexive response to the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus -Neutral stimulus: stimulus that didn't elicit the response of interest -Conditioning stimulus (CS): a stimulus that is initially evokes no response, but after conditioning, now evokes a response (--- Conditioned response(CR): a response that is similar but often not identical to the unconditioned response that is evoked by the conditioned stimulus ) • Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the time during which a CR first appears and increase in frequency and intensity, becoming more and more like the UCR • The most effective way to produce a classical conditioned response is Delay conditioning: occurs when there is a delay between CS and UCS - Backward conditioning: occurs when presentation of the UCS occurs before presentation of the CS, (is the least effective form of conditioning) - Simultaneous conditioning: occurs when both UCS and CS are presented at the same time. More effective than BC - Trace conditioning: occurs when the CS is presented and removed just before the UCS is presented Memory trace: an impression, sensory or short-term memory of a stimulus, left in the brain. (only if there’s a short delay between when the CS goes off and the presentation of the UCS) • Generalization: in classical conditioning, CRs elicited by stimuli that resemble, but are not identical to, the CS used in training. • Discrimination training: in classical conditioning, the animal or subject to respond selectively to only one stimulus and not others that are similar • Habituation - One of the simplest forms of learning, it involves diminished response to a stimulus after repeated exposure - Is a slow process (if there’s a train passing by house several times, people will eventually get used to it or habituate to, the sound so that it no longer keeps people awake at night) • Contiguity: a continuous series of frequent pairings • Contingency the degree to which the occurrence of some event is predicted by another event • Extinction: a gradual weakening and loss of the conditioned response that result in the behavior decreasing or disappearing as a result of the UCS being withheld after presentation of the CS. • Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. • features of a familiar environment in which drug taking is habitual will become associated with the unconditioned stimulus of the drug and the unconditioned response of the drug’s effects on the body. Accordingly, they will stimulate a conditioned response that might involve compensatory reactions heroin slows a person’s breathing rate. The conditioned response in an experienced heroin user involves breathing faster than normal to maintain homeostasis. If the usual conditioned stimuli are not present because the addict is in an unfamiliar place, doesn’t have the usual drug-taking paraphernalia, or is not with the usual companions, then the conditioned response does not occur and the usual dose becomes a fatal overdose. • Thorndike and his cats behaviours (such as ring pulling) with favourable outcomes (such as escape from a confining box and access to yummy fish) are likely to be repeated. If it
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