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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture 1: PSYC week 9

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

PSYC week 9 • Adequate stimulus: type of physical energy to which a sensory receptor is especially tuned • Photons: particles that transmit light • Wavelength: distance from one crest to another crest [color] • Amplitude (intensity): is the height of each wave. Intensity depends directly in amplitude [brightness] • Cornea: a clear layer that covers the front portion of the eye and contributes to our ability to focus our vision on an object • Pupil: change size to increase or decrease the amount of light entering the eye • Lens: changes its shape through the action o muscles • Accommodation: process by which the lens changes shape to ensure the eye is refracted in such a way that it is focused when it reaches the back of the eye • Retina: inner surface of the back of the eye where the light-sensitive receptors cells (photoreceptors) are located - Photoreceptors: light energy is converted to electrical signals by photoreceptors - cones (colour) and rods (dim light) - ganglion cells: a neuron in the retina that receives info from photoreceptors by means of bipolar cells and from which axons proceed through the optic nerves to the thalamus • photo-pigments: that cones and rods contained - complex molecules found in photoreceptors that generate electrical signals in the photoreceptors when they are exposed to light - bleaching: cause the photoreceptors to become less receptive to light, in very bright light conditions, the photopigments in rods is completely bleached. Thus rods are inactive om bright light conditions - light sensitivity threshold drops - cone only attached to one ganglion cell; but many rods connect to one • Fovea: a small area near the center of the retina containing densely packed of cones, this is the region of sharpest focus and best color vison • Color blindness: people with defects in color vision are generally missing some or all of one or more types of cones. • Resolution: the size of the smallest difference that can be identified. A higher resolution means that a smaller difference in location, color, amplitude or other attribute can be detected or distinguished • Monocular depth cues: cues to distance that depend on input from only one eye • Binocular: cues to distance that depend on input from both eyes • Motion parallax: the monocular depth cue
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