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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture 1: Psyc week 14

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Psyc week 14 • Germinal period: the first two weeks after the sperm and egg unite • Gamete: a mature male or female cell used for reproduction • Haploid: having one set of chromosomes instead of a pair • Zygote: fertilized egg • Diploid: a cell containing both sets of chromosomes • Cleavage: division of cells in the early embryo to form blastomeres • Morula: a solid mass of blastmeres resulting from a number of cleavages of a zygote • Stem cells: are cells that have the same DNA as every other cell but have not yet undergone any epigenetic modification. All cells in morula are stem cells • Two layers of the cell - Inner cells mass: the mass of cells inside the morula that eventually will form the embryo - Trophoblast: the cells that form the outer layer of a blastocyst • Embryo: the cell development stage preceding the foetus • Blastocyst: the stage a fertilized egg reaches five to six days after fertilization • Layers of cells - Endoderm: the innermost layer of tissue, --- develops into digestive system, urinary tract, and lungs - Mesoderm: the middle layer, transform to muscle, bone and the circulatory system - Ectoderm: the outer layer, develops into skin, hair, teeth and the central nervous system • Neural tube: the embryo’s precursor 前身 to the central nervous system • Neurulation: the formation of the embryonic nervous system, which will then develop into brain and central nervous system • Neurogenesis: the process by which neurons are generated • Neural migration: the process through which neurons move, grow, and connect as the basic neural tube develops into a more mature brain • Cephalocaudal: the pattern of embryonic development in which development occurs most intensely at the head and proceeds downward toward the body • Proximodistal: the pattern of embryonic development proceeding from the center of the organism outward • Apoptosis: the genetically programmed process of cell death as part of normal development or the normal functioning of cells and organs - Before apoptosis: hand - After apoptosis: finger formation • The foetus - 3 month: a month later, the majority of organ growth is complete. 10 weeks age, the foetus begins making breathing-like motions. The chest movements provide muscle and nerve development needed for the newborn breathe immediately after birth. - At the end of four month: sleep and wake patterns begin to emerge. Those movements have been shown to be crucial to the development of typical nerve and limb growth - 5 month: the vestibular system (the sense of balance) begin to develop. The foetus become more responsive to the sound. Their heartbeat changes in response to mother’s voice, they already learned to recognize mother’s voice and will respond to it more than to strangers’ voices - Sixth month: 30cm long. Two weeks later, their heartbeat will change I response to light stimulation through mother’s abdomen. From 6~8 month, the spontaneous movement decreases, which is thought to be for the growth of inhibitory neural pathways throughout the body - 7~9 month: while in the womb, they still experience taste. When infants begin to eat solid food, they show preference for foods that their mother ate while pregnant and breastfeeding. • Nutrition: folic acid/vitamin B-12/ iron, has been shown to aid brain development and prevent some birth defects. - Stress: the maternal emotional state, high levels of stress during pregnancy have been associated with both premature delivery and low birth weight. - Nutrition: mother’s foo dis the only source for the growing organism t obtain its own materials it needs to support its rapid and substantial growth. - Malnutrition: poor nutrition which often occurs in people who have been affected by poverty or famine, can adversely affect development. • Teratogen: external compounds that can cause extreme deviations from typical development. - Alcohol - Tobacco products: it will affect the development of placenta, that is responsible for the nutrition of foetus - Prescription drugs: - Viruses: although the placenta acts as a barrier to prevent most of the viruses from affecting the foetus, some viruses can still cause the serious effect on development of foetus. - The susceptibility of a developing organism to a teratogen depends when the organism is exposed to it • Famine also cause extreme, long-lasting stress and increased susceptibility development to illness. • Reflexes: the presence of strong reflexes at birth, but gradually decreased - Rooting: crucial to feeding but is soon replaced by voluntary behaviors - Sucking: is sth get into the infacnts’mouth, they will begin to suck - Babinski: stroke the underside of an infant’s foot, they will automatically fanand curl the toes - Tonic neck: occurs when infants turn their head to one side as their gaze and flex arm and knee on the opposite side of the body - Stepping: when held upright over a flat surface, infants move their feet in walk-like fashion, demonstrating stepping reflex - Moro: occurs when infants throw out their arms and grasp if they feel themselves dropping unexpectedly. - Eye blink: present from birth until death, protecting their eyes from foreign objects and bright lights - Grasping: three-month, it will be replaced by intentional grasping. “pre-reaching” • Growing the brain - Synapses: junction between the terminal button of a neuron and the membrane of a muscle fiber, a gland or another neuron - Synaptogenesis: the process though which new synapses are formed between neurons • Synaptic Pruning: facilitates a change in neural structure by reducing the overall numbers of synapses, leaving more efficient synaptic configurations. Occurs throughout life •
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