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Lecture 1

PSYC 100 Lecture 1: PSYC WEEK 17

4 Pages

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

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PSYC WEEK 17 • Personality: is a pattern of thinking and interacting that is unique to each individual and remains relatively consistent over time and across situations • Personality theories: - (Freud)Psychodynamics: internal drives and forces (ego, id, superego) provide a window into clients’ unconscious mind - Behavioral: is groups of learned habits and responses, which is the product of operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Personality characteristics are basically behavioral pattern that shaped and reinforced by the environment. Thoughts and cognition contribute to personality (---social learning theories) - Trait: 5 core traits Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism - Humanistic (less supported by…): (rejecting psychodynamics and behavioral theories) free will and self-development, impediments to self-actualization Cattell’s theory is too complex • Factor analysis: statistical analysis that examines all the correlations between all of the items and determines if any of them are highly correlated with each other • The 16 PF questionnaire: multiple-choice personality questionnaire developed by Cattell to measure 16 normal adult personality dimensions • The BIG FIVE: five personality dimensions derived from analyses of the natural-language terms people use to decide themselves and others. - Openness to experience: describes an individual’s willingness to participate in new experiences, having a wide set of interests, and being creative/imaginative - Consciousness: describe how organized, methodical, disciplined and motivated one is - Extraversion: describe how talkative, outgoing and assertive one is - Agreeableness: describe how kind, sympathetic and affectionate one is - Neuroticism: describe the extent to which one is anxious and tense. Someone who is described as high on this factor tends to exhibit anxiety • NEO personality inventory: instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factors model • Genetics * environment = personality • Sigmund Feud: Viennese physician who proposed that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives triggered by events in person’s life • Psychosexual development: - Fixation: energies remain focused on a particular stage or activity without progress - Defense mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with the internalized prohibitions of the superego • Categorizing defenses - Immature defenses: distort reality the most and lead to the most ineffective behavior - Intermediate defenses: less distortion of reality and
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