PSYC week 16
• Observational learning: bandura’s social learning theory
• Inductive discipline: guiding behaviors, introducing appropriate limits, and setting up
reasonable consequences while also explaining why
• Children learning things by how caregivers teaching them
- Authoritative: parents are unlikely to use physical discipline and will explain the
reasons behind the rules they lay out. The reason with their children, hearing their
arguments but not always giving in to them. Although authoritative parents set firm
rules and consistently upload them, they grant children a high degree of freedom
within set boundaries
Children tend to be socially competent and self-confident, and have the best overall
outcomes. They often do well in school, feel good about themselves, and report
feeling supported by their parents. They have better self-regulation and quicker to
adapt to new situations.
- Authoritarian: parents tend to discipline using threats and punishments and are
likely to use physical discipline. They may praise obedience as a virtue and expect
their children to follow rules without explanation
Children may unhappy and lack social competence. They conform well to standards
and expectations of adults but lack self-confidence. They may be unsure of
themselves in social situations and look for the guidance of authority figures when
faed with moral issues. The use of physical discipline is associated with anxiety and
increased aggressive behavior in children.
- Permissive: parents believe children learn best on their own, without structure
imposed on them by adults. They allow children a great deal of freedom in
regulating their own lives and place few demands on them to achieve or behave
Children often have difficulty controlling their impulses and acting responsibly. They
report high self-confidence but do not perform well in school and are more likely to engage in substance abuse. They may react more intensely than other children to
- Rejecting-neglectful: parents do not set limits for their children, do not monitor their
activities, and may actively discourage them. They are more engaged in meeting
their own needs than those of their children.
Children have lower perceptions of themselves and are less competent. They may
antisocial and lack self-regulation and are prone to substance abuse. They also are
more likely to internalize their problems, leading to depression and social difficulties,
and are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors.
• Teaching and learning:
- Teacher model --- learner observes --- learner improves
• Konrad Lorenz---imprinting: a rapid form of learning, typically occurring in a restricted
time window after birth, that allows an animal, person, or thing as an object to be
emulated and followed
• A secure base --- attachment: social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver
that spans both time and space
- Stage 1 pre-attachment: begins at birth and extend to 6 weeks of age. Infants at this
stage remain in close contact with their caregivers, reliant on them for food,
protection, and comfort. Infants don't display signs of distress when left in the care
of someone who is not one of primary caregivers
- Stage 2 attachment-in-the-making:6 weeks ~8 months, infants begin to treat people
differently, showing more preference for familiar people.
- Stage 3 clear-cut attachment: 6weeks ~ 8 months and ends around 18 months.
infants actively seek comfort from their caregivers. Caregivers---secure base. Infants
begin to display separation anxiety, showing signs of extreme distress when
separated from their caregivers.
• Contact comfort: the comfort that primate babies derive for close physical contact with