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Lecture 2

Week 20 - Motivation and Emotion

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Dr.Ada Mullett

Week 20 Notes: Motivation and Emotion Why do we do the things we do?  Describe the terms motivation and drive, and differentiate between regulatory and non-regulatory drives  Describe the rewards systems and mechanisms in the brain  Evaluate the drive-reduction theory and the optimum-level hypothesis  Explain the central state theory of drives  Evaluate theories of motivation for their ability to explain how and why we eat  Analyze the pleasure principle and the hedonic nature of motivation  Motivation: general term for phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual  Drive: a reversible internal condition that effects your motivation level  Drives can be classified as regulatory (needed for immediate survival) or non-regulatory (which satisfy some other evolutionary purpose like safety, reproduction, cooperation)  Non-regulatory drives include safety, reproduction, social, and educative  The rewards system reinforces behaviours that result in the reduction of a drive, this is related to the limbic system in the basal forebrain (idle, behind ears)  Animals can be motivated by rewards even if they have no obvious value for survival and drive reduction  Medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and nucleus of the basal ganglia important in rewards  Creativity may be explained by motivational mechanisms in a more complex brain (reproduction, education)  Central State Theory: the hypothalamus senses your internal states, and since it is connected to the pituitary gland, may orchestrate the release of hormones, which make you crave potato chips when your low on salt  Drive-Reduction Theory: a drive produces an unpleasant state that we are motivated to reduce  Central state theory explains why we feel motivated to fulfill some needs, but doesn’t explain the specific ways we choose to fulfill them  Two forms of motivation are intrinsic (because they are internally satisfying) and extrinsic (to achieve a reward/goal or avoid something aversive)  Often both intrinsic and extrinsic are at work, but some extrinsic motivators may reduce intrinsic  Over-Justification Effect: people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity will stop the activity if extrinsic reward were removed  Hunger and satiety are affected by stomach pressure sensors, neural sensors, blood glucose, and fat stores (leptin)  In the hypothalamus, near the pituitary glands, accurate “appetite control center” identified, either stimulating or suppressing hunger  What and how much we eat also affected by social cues, like meal times, being around others who’re eating, and aesthetic factors  We can get full nutrition from very bland meals, but decide to eat better tasting food because it’s more rewarding  As we become satiated, food (even chocolate) becomes less rewarding  Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB): applying small electrical shock to different parts of the brain  ESB can motivate rats to move when placed in Media Forebrain Bundle (MFB)  Sex and drugs depend on pleasure principle, but who we are attracted to (male/female) can depend on other social factors, birth order, neural mechanisms, hormones, foetal development, and genes Why might we express and be able to read other’s emotions?  Describe the James-Lange, Canon-Bard, and Schachter Two-Factor theories of emotion  Describe the roles of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in emotions  Describe research, including cross-cultural studies, on human expression and recognition of emotion  Describe how emotions and other forms of affect can influence judgements about self and others  Describe important individuals differences in emotion that have been identified by personality and social psychologists  James-Lange Theory: specific bodily reactions determine our subjective experience of the motion (physiological, the conscious experience of emotion)  Canon-Bard Theory: a stimulus simultaneously arouses physiologica and conscious emotional experience  Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: when we are physiologically aroused, we experience the emotion that is best explained by cues in the environment  No matter what culture you belong to, people are universally able to identify some facial expressions/emotions; six basic ones are happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, contempt, and disgust  Though emotions are distributed in different parts of the brain, it primarily resides in the frontal cortex, integrating sensation with memory and other sources of meaning  Emotions and being able to read other’s emotions serves the evolutionary purpose of survival and reproduction  The Facial Feedback theory suggests that if you smile, you’ll start to feel happy; people who show an emotional expression on purpose show physiological signs consistent with that emotion  The limbic system plays an important role in the regulation of emotion and motivation  Cognitive appraisal of stressful situations involves the medial prefrontal cortex, which interacts with the limbic system  The amygdala is associated with negative emotions (cluster of nuclei underneath the cerebral cortex)  The prefrontal cortex, limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and pituitary gland all take part in stress and emotion  Emotions can either be obligate (universal) or facultive (different as a function of one’s environment) Chapter 13 Notes  Regulatory systems keep us in a stable state (homeostasis) with four features: o System Variable: characteristic to be regulated o Set Point: optimum value of system variable o Detector: monitors set value of the system o Correctional Mechanism: restores system to set point  Negative Feedback: effect produced by an action serves to eventually terminate that action  Optimum-Level Hypothesis: organisms attempt to restore level arousal to an optimum level o Diverse Exploration in response to under stimulation o Specific Exploration in response to overstimulation o We become unorganized and agitated with too much arousal, unmotivated with too little o Impossible to measure optimum level Perseverance  Perseverance: continue to perform behaviour even when it is not enforced  Failure breeds persistence, only when historically followed by eventual success  Extinction in a stimuli promotes aggression  Over-Justification Hypothesis: applicati
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