Class Notes (809,125)
Canada (493,536)
Psychology (1,978)
PSYC 100 (1,087)
Lecture 2

Week 23 - Social Psychology II

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
PSYC 100
Dr.Ada Mullett

Week 23 Notes – Social Psychology II Influence How do we influence other (and how do they influence us)?  Evaluate the elements of conformity and obedience  Explain compliance and the principles that are used to facilitate its occurrence Conformity  Conformity: adjusting one’s attitudes and behaviour to coincide with a group norm  Social Norms: informal rules defining the expected and appropriate behaviour in specific situations  Information Influence: a form of social influence that leads a person to conform because he or she believes others are credible and have more information. o We conform to other people’s beliefs in ambiguous situations, or when we are unsure of ourselves (even when the solution is obvious, but everyone else says it’s something else, we have self-doubt)  Normative Influence: person conforms because they fear the consequences of deviating from group norms o Going along with the group may also result from not wanting to be left out  Private Conformity: where an individual changes behaviours and beliefs to conform to a group, produced by information influence  Public Conformity: individual changes behaviours but not beliefs to conform to a group, produced by normative influence Obedience  Obedience: compliant behaviour produced by the commands of authority  Obedience is an evolutionary behaviour, getting people to work together under a direct command, or preventing children for hurting themselves while exploring/learning  Obedience depends on various factors including proximity to authority figure and victim, legitimacy of authority figure, presence of dissenting allies, use of incremental request, and personal responsibility Compliance  Compliance: change in behaviour elicited by a direct request from another individual who is not an authority figure  Robert Cialdini proposed six basic psychological Principles of Influence (means of persuading an individual to think/behave in a certain way during a decision-making process): o Consistency and Commitment: We attempt to align our behaviours and out attitudes, and each time we comply with a request, it modifies our attitudes and self-concept (hey, I’m compliant!) so we’re motivated to act accordingly in the future. Also, once a person’s made a commitment, they feel obliged to carry through. o Reciprocity: we treat others the same way they treat us, and feel obliged to repay favours even when unsolicited o Social Proof: we’re inclined to follow the lead of others, do the same things people around us are don’t (social conformity) o Liking: when we like someone we feel more inclined to comply with their requests o Authority: very influential (obedience) o Scarcity: people are more sensitive to losses than gains; we value items that seem rare or less available o We’re more likely to comply to attractive people; classical condition could be one reason (feeling a positive reaction towards one stimuli, the attractive woman, spreads to a positive feeling with associated stimuli, a car for sale). Another reason may be self-esteem, we want to be liked by attractive people because we feel that if they like us, we’ll be part of their ‘group’ and more attractive by association  Foot-in-the-Door Technique: two-step compliance technique in which the influencer prefaces the real request by first getting a person to comply with a much smaller request. Uses consistency.  Low-Balling Technique: two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs. Uses commitment.  Door-in-the-Face Technique: two-step compliance technique in which the influencer prefaces the real request with a request so large that it is likely to be rejected and make the real request seem more reasonable. Uses reciprocity and perceptual contrast.  That’s-not-All Technique: two-step compliance technique in which the influencer makes an initial request and before the person can respond, increases the attractiveness of the request by offering an additional benefit or decreasing its apparent size. Uses perceptual contrast and reciprocity. Interaction Are you more or less “you” when interacting with others?  Analyze prosocial behaviour  Evaluate factors affecting the beginning, continuation, and end of interpersonal relationships Interpersonal Interactions  Bystander Apathy: the effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping  Pluralistic Ignorance: false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding. It occurs when people mistakenly think their own individual thoughts, feelings, or behaviours are different from those around them.  Diffusion of Responsibility: belief that other people will or should take responsibility for helping someone in need Attraction  Interpersonal Attraction: people’s tendency to approach each other and to evaluate each other positively  Attraction is influenced by… o Positive Evaluation o Familiarity o Similarity o Physical Appearance o Physiological Arousal  Men value physical attractiveness more than women do in the long-run, while women value status more  Averageness and facial symmetry lead to attractiveness  Women with “baby-face” features (large eyes, small nose, small chin, full lips) and narrow cheekbones deemed most attractive  Masculine men with strong jaws and broad foreheads are more attractive during fertile period in menstrual cycle, and boyish faces are more attractive for the rest of the cycle  We like people more when they like us because we fear rejection, but these people must be selective in those who they like (you want someone to say ‘yes’ to you and ‘no’ to everyone else)  Relationships where people are alike tend to do better when people are similar in terms of demographics, attitudes, values, appearance, personality Loving  Liking: a feeling of personal regard, intimacy, and esteem toward another person  Loving: a combination of liking and a deep sense of attachment to, intimacy with, and caring for another person  Passionate (Romantic) Love: an emotional, intense desire for sexual union with another person. Occurs when there is a… o Desire for intimacy o Feeling of passion o Preoccupation with thoughts of that person o Emotional dependence o Feeling wonderful if that person feels romantic love toward you, and dejec
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.