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PSYCH Term 2 Lecture Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

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Language 09 January 2013 What is language? Language is more than communication. What makes something language? It is symbolic. It can be used to communicate novel ideas. It can be used to communicate about something that‟s not happening here and now. These three criteria can be referred to as (1) semanticity, (2) generativity, and (3) displacement. Language is complicated. Types of Linguistic Knowledge Phonology A phoneme is defined as the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word. e.g. sip vs. zip 5000+ living language English 40+ phonemes (many vowels) Morphology help, helping, helps, helped, helpful, helpful, helpless Syntax (grammar) Semantics Pragmatics knowledge of the world, appropriateness (social aspect) For idea and decide to speak > choose meaning > apply syntax and morphology > map words onto motor sequence > move mouth, teeth, tongue, vocal folds, etc. > acoustic signal Comprehend utterance >< analyze syntax >< Recognize words and their associated meanings >< map sound onto phonemes/syllables >< Analyze acoustic signal >< acoustic signal [Top down processing] Left hemisphere is (usually) dominant for language Symptoms of patients with focal brain lesions (tumors/strokes) Results of language tests after a reversible lesion is induced in the right or left hemisphere perceptual data from Lesion Studies Patients with different types of speech production and perception deficits: Broca‟s aphasia Wernicke‟s aphasia Classic anomia Some areas involved in language: Wernicke‟s area: adjacent to primary auditory cortex Broca‟s area: left inferior frontal gyrus These areas Broca‟s (non-fluent) aphasia Patients with difficulty with speech output effortful, telegraphic lacking function words, grammatical markers (syntactical errors) Wernicke‟s (fluent) aphasia: Patients with fluent speech lacking content words, semantic errors comprehension difficulties Limitations of Lesion Studies Patients often classified on basis of behaviour not lesion Lesions vary greatly can be large don‟t obey „functional boundaries‟ some areas less prone to damage how to identify healthy vs. damaged brain functional compensation/reorganisation Functional neural-imaging measure activity in the living brain healthy volunteers or patients detect varying activity in different parts of the brain when subjects doing different tasks Blood flow as an index of neural activity Neural Activity: requires energy in the form of glucose and oxygen provided by local blood flow Syntactic processing: The Role of Broca‟s area Semantic processing: The Role of Broca‟s area Broca‟s area: Not just syntax but semantics too! consistent with the idea the Broca‟s region is not just Genetics and Intelligence 16 January 2013 The basic unit of heredity is called a: gene Nature: genes we get from our parents Nurture: all of the physical and social environment Genotype The nucleus of every cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes  Genes are sections of the chromosomes  Each gene is a segment of the DNA that codes for production of one particular protein Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotype: the complete set of genes that you inherit from your parents Phenotype: the observable expression of your genotype including both your appearances and behaviour  Phenotype affected by environment even before conception Most human genetics traits depend on a single gene: false Heritability The degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a population is a result of genetic differences among these organisms  Not individuals but groups  Intelligence studied a great deal: heritability estimate of 50%  Remember that genes only code for proteins  Only applies to a particular group living in a particular environment at a particular point in time Behavioural Genetics  Tease apart environmental and genetic contributions  Family, twin, and adoption studies  Ideal behavioural genetics study combines twin and adoption On average, behavioural genetics studies estimate the heritability of intelligence to be: higher for adults than children Intelligence  An individual‟s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from an experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles through mental effort  What and how is controversial Fluid intelligence:  Decreases with age (stops at 20/25) Crystallized intelligence: knowledge  Keeps growing Theories of Intelligence Gardner-theory of multiple intelligences:  Popular in field of education – little good research  Theory based on adults with neurological insults Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory:  Conventional (analytic) intelligence  Creative intelligence  Practical intelligence Intelligence Testing Controversy  Intelligence testing is a growth industry  Focuses on outcome and not process  Does not measure attitude and motivation  Poor and minority children are often placed in special ed classrooms due to their IQ scores  Tests depend on exposure and test-taking skill Verbal subtest (bias)  “What does „a stitch in time saves 9‟ mean?”  “What does canal mean?”  “How are peanut butter and jelly alike?” Hereditability of Intelligence?  If we are blank slates we can all be perfected (but we‟re not)  Jim twins – strong evidence that we‟re not born as blank states Expression  Some genes on for a few hours during development, then turned off, never to be turned on again Epigenetics  Influenced by the world around us Epigenetics Regulation  The same set of genes but with expression (structures) of those genes during different life stages  E.g. caterpillar  butterfly Environment plays a role  Gene expression  Minimal standards required for a child to thrive Lifespan Development 23 January 2013 Childhood development: critical periods of development Development Systematic changes in behaviours and abilities that occur between the moment of conception and death  Changes: continual and cumulative  Effects at one age have ramifications at other ages Early Stages of Development  Most rapid  Crucial periods of development in infants and children Teratogens are: toxins  Anything that has an adverse effect on development  Effects range from very mild to death  Many only a problem if exposure occurs during sensitive period Lifespan Development: Aging DNA & Aging  Scientists have isolated a gene sequence that appears to determine how fast our bodies age  Difference between: o Chronological age o Biological age (genetic make up and lifestyle factors)  One or two copies of the genetic sequence probably making less of the enzyme, called telomerase, when they are growing in the womb  Born with shorter telomerase, and so are prone to aging more quickly Telomeres  Stained chromosomes (red) on a microscope slide.  Telomere sequences (yellow) reside at the ends of each chromosome.  each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter  too short, the cell no longer can divide and become inactive  associated with aging, cancer and a high risk of death Factors in aging: telomere shortening, time (age), sugars Dementia Normal aging:  Slight decrements in speed of processing, memory, and other cognitive abilities (cog. Decline) Mid Cognitive impairment:  Isolated impairments, usually in memory Dementia:  severe impairments in two or more cognitive domains, as well as functional decline. Diagnostic Criteria: Dementia The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both A. (1) memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information) (2) one (or more) of the following cognitive disturbances: a. aphasia (language disturbance) b. apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function) c. agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function) d. disturbance in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting) B. The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 each cause significant impairment in social or occupational functioning and represent a significant decline from a previous level of functioning. DSM-IV subtypes of Dementia 1. Dementia of the Alzheimer‟s type 2. Vascular dementia 3. Dementia due to HIV disease 4. Dementia due to head trauma 5. Dementia due to Parkinson‟s disease 6. Dementia due to Huntington‟s disease 7. Dementia due to Pick‟s disease 8. Dementia due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 9. Dementia due to general medical condition 10.Substance induced persisting dementia 11.Dementia due to multiple etiologies 12.Dementia not otherwise specified Outlook and aging  subjective health is significantly better predictor of life expectancy than formal medical diagnosis.  This does not mean that one can wishfully think oneself a longer life, but a robust attitude will certainly not be harmful. Lifestyle  Moderate exercise can and does improve cognitive skills Use it or lose it: A stimulated brain thrives Trauma models of psychopathology Neurodevelopment & traumatic experience  Developmental experience determines the organization and function of a mature brain  Acute adaptive states when they persist can become maladaptive traits * children who grow up in abusive homes, witness traumatic events, etc. Use-dependent neurodevelopment  Increasing threat alters o Mental state, style of thinking (cognition) o Physiology (increased heart rate, muscle tone, rate of breathing)  These states organize neural systems in a developing brain Deprivation • Lack of specific sensory experiences • Emotionally neglected child: profound attachment problems as an adult • Feral children • Children raised in some orphanages Maltreated/Trauma  Traumatized child experiences over activation of important neural systems during sensitive periods of development  Can re-experience the trauma with reminders of the event  Reminders may generalize (gunshots to loud noises…)  Stress-response is activated again and again Generally 2 States for Children Adaptive responses include:  Dissociative state (freeze) o oppositional defiance disorder o depression  Fear state: Hyperarousal symptoms o Persistent hyperaoursal symptoms o combative o aggressive Major Theories of Developmental Psychology 30 January 2013 Vague theories cannot be proven wrong:  Allow us to develop testable hypotheses  Some are merely frameworks Erikson  Stages involve conflict resolution Bronfenbrenner  Ecological Systems Model Bandura  Reciprocal determinism  Bobo doll Piaget  Schema  4 stages  little scientists Vygotsky  Socio-cultural  Zone of Proximal Development  Social Scaffolding Core Knowledge  Sophisticated cognitive tools Theory Theory  Hypothesis testing Hypotheses cannot be proven right:  Could have a hypothesis that all cats have 4 legs.  All it takes is one cat to disprove a theory.  Cannot disprove a theory but never prove a theory.  Hope to disprove other hypotheses and find supporting evidence.  Have to be testable. Why have theories/frameworks?  Human development is complex, varied, fascinating, exciting and wonderful!  What is normal?  When to intervene? Piaget‟s Legacy:  While Piaget was wrong about many things, he was right about others  Huge impact on field  “little scientists” Little Scientists: o sound experiment o squelching o different perspectives (seeing the world through a child‟s eyes) Ecological Systems Model:  Bronfenbrenner  Explains development through interactions between children and the settings in which they live  Every level has an effect(bidirectional)  Not falsifiable The Sociocultural Perspective:  View children as social beings who are influenced by the cultures in which they live  Lev Vygotsky‟s (1896 – 1934) Vygotsky‟s Sociocultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)  range of tasks child can perform with help of someone more skilled  use of conversations, external and internal, to guide the learning Scaffolding  Adult provides problem-solving methods until child can perform independently  May also be used by child with peers Self and Others: A Comparative Analysis 06 February 2013 Theory of Mind: the ability to reason about what other people might know or believe and how those beliefs and knowledge will relate to their actions  Mental states of others are not directly observable… so we make predications from experience Baren-Cohen  First-order tests of theory of mind Theory of Mind in Non-humans Less dominant chimps will approach food:  When hidden when dominant not looking  When moved when dominant not looking  When new dominant chimp brought in Covids move cache when seen hiding their food Knower-Guesser Differentiation Ravens Demonstrating mental attribution in non-human animals  Exploiting the bird‟s tendancy to remember and pilfer food caches they have seen others make  Ravens employ different behavioural tactics according to the information their competetors had during caching Findings:  Recognizing the other‟s perception (and/or knowledge state)  Ability to memorize the other‟s line of sight  Ravens not only remember whom they have seen at caching but also take into account whether the other‟s view was blocked Magic: Having a theory of mind, in other words, means having the capacity  To go beyond the surface  Beyond the behaviour and the actions  To the intentions, the desires, the beliefs that motivate them  Magic works because of our „mind-reading‟ skills Theory of Mind  From this “deeper” perspective, the world is not just made up of arms, legs and eyes that move in a coordinated fashion  Also made up a host of mental states – your own and those of others – that direct and animat
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