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Lecture 5

Week 5 - Self and Other's, A Comparative Perspective.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Week 5 – Self and Others: A Comparative Perspective  Development of the Self  At 2-4 months – agency  At 9-12 months – joint attention and social referencing  At 18 months – pass the rouge test  Terrible twos-differentiating (at 18 months, where they learn that word no, disagreeing with the parents)  Narrative and autobiographical memory helps build sense of continuous self  Descriptions of Self  preschool children’s learn to describe themselves such as their attributes, abilities, posessions  tend to use concrete things, such as brown hair, blue eyes, my favourite color is red, etc  elementary school children begin to use social comparisons, such as better than, more clothes than, etc  high school students tend to have a larger awareness of conflicting attributes, start focusing on non-tangible things, their personalities, whether they`re smart, good athletes  conflicting attributes begin to resolve as they become older  Adolescence  Begin and tend to realize that they are different depending on certain situations and begin to generalize themselves  Start to unify separate traits into high-order descriptors  When students enter grade 9, individuals become really self-centred, another phase of egocentrism – a personal fable and imaginary audience (everybody`s watching and evaluating you, being judgemental and making themselves seem like the `princess` of a fable)  Identity Formation  Read notes on Week 4  Theory of Mind – study of other people’s thoughts  The precursor to theory of mind is joint attention, social referencing, understanding preferences and intended actions  Joint attention – the mutual understand between two on the focus of an object by the alerting of eye-gazing or perhaps pointing, anything non-verbal  Social Referencing – understanding that a certain figure, eg. Parental has more knowledge of certain matters and they will go to them for aid  Understanding Preferences – age 14-18 months? the understanding that no everyone enjoys or likes the same things  Intended Actions – eg. If someone drops a coffee mug by accident while attempting to place it on a desk  Kids are presented with the task to do what the experiment truly intended to  Refer to figure 5.17 – understanding intention tasks (teddy bear and ball)  Strongly related to executive functioning but not completely  Card Sort task –  Blue and red bunnies and red and blue trucks on cards  Usually tell the children to sort them into colors, after 10 trials of this sorting they tell them to sort them by shape  End up still sorting them by color  Cognitive flexibility – inability to stop thinking about what they know in the present and relieve their old thoughts  The more older siblings you have, the quicker you will develop theory of mind  Eg. They try to trick you, make you take the blame etc and therefore develops theory of mind earlier to ``protect `` themselves  One of the major problems in children with autism  In non – humans  Researched to see if chimps have the same thought processes as humans  Experiment where chimps can move boxes around in the middle, a dominant chimp is on one side and a less – dominant chimp on the other side  The less dominant chimp will approach food that is hidden when the more dominant chimp isn`t looking  They will also go to the food when it is moved to another box when the dominant chimp isn`t looking  They also understand when new dominant chimps are brought in and will go after the hidden food as they know the new chimp does not know where it is hidden  Will not approach the food when there are multiple pieces of food and the dominant chimp does not approach either  Covids move cache when they`re seen hiding to prevent food from being taken   False-belief task - kid is shown a band-aid box and is asked what’s in it  Something else is in the band-aid box, anything but band aids  Another band-aid box is shown, and a doll Is shown as well, kid is asked to say what they think the doll will believe is in that second band-aid box and they will say it is whatever was shown to them in the previous box  Can’t reflect on their past-beliefs as well as their new-belief that the doll would see that obj
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