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Week 1 - - Language .docx

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012 Week 1 : Language General Things about Language  Symbols of a true language are arbitrary  No reason to call a baby a baby, could call them anything  Exceptions are onomatopoeia  Language is infinitely generative, can say any statement in many ways  Language allows for displacement, can talk about any time period, past, present and future Components of Language  Phonemes – components of sound  Eg. Th, ck,  Talk in a continuous speech stream, without forced enunciation  Morphemes – units of meaning, shouldn`t be confused with syllables  Happy – one morpheme  Unhappy – two morpheme  Unhappiness- three morpheme  Number of morphemes is associated with units of meaning  Free and bound morphemes are root words  Free – eg. Happy  Bound – eg. Not, un  MLU – mean length of utterance  Syntax – the rules of a language (unconsciously done, grammar)  Examples are word order, use of nouns,verbs and adjectives along with affixes  Function words are propositions (I,to,the), whereas content words are words such as nouns that fulfill the rest of the sentence  Semantics – study of meaning of word  Textbook says part of syntax but it isn`t  Understanding of semantics helps us understand syntax and vice-versa  Prosody-stress – rthym and pitch  Pragmatics – the social use of language  Eg. How you talk to police officer vs your friends  How you give information out  Irony  Sarcasm Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012 Early Speech Perception  Babies that are a month old are able to detect all possible phoneme differences  By age of 1, babies can only detect phoemes that are present in their native language  As babies age, they are less and less capable of being able to distinguish phonemes in foreign languages  Eg. Japanese babies can detect difference between re and le, whereas Japanese adults who have never been exposed to English cannot distinguish the difference at all Babbling  Babies exposed to sign language will `babble`in sign language  Shows that they are trying to communicate, practice their language  Approximations of sign language as opposed to the full sign language  Around 6 months, they will babble a lot and attempt to imitate others  Deaf children will babble audibly at a young age, but will stop due to having no positive reinforcement as they cannot hear it  Babbling will gradually take on the sounds, rhythm of their native language Infant-Directed Talk  Motherese  Most cultures use it but it isn’t really necessary  Sweet tone, exaggerated prosody, enunciation and many pauses  Main goal is to get childs attention, and then once attention is received then mother will start to talk normally Early Words  Most early words are directed to objects and people that are related and connected to the baby  Usually names for people and things  Only say what they need to get their point across  Under and over extension occurs early on  Instead of saying my cup, they just say cup Grammar Development Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012  Usually starts to use at age of 2  In telepgraphic speech word order rules are not violated  Eg. They will never say store I go, rather I go store  They will say things correct, but ten they will overregularize  I go to grandmas, and then one day they will start saying I go to the grandmas  Due to having so much grammar under belt  Child thinks they add –ed for everything to past, and will start adding everything ed to everything to past  Recasting, saying their phrase correctly back to them  MLU – average number of morphemes per utterance Nurture (Learning Theories) Nativist Theories  Chomsky said language too complex  Language acquisition device specialized for detecting and learning rules  Children are predisposed to learn and attend specific aspects of grammar and word order Interactionist Theories  Language development is influenced by communicative function  Language often presented structurally  Children are usually motivated to communicate with others  Language is learned with no specific pre-wiring in the brain  Early on focus is on semantics but later on towards grammar Week 1 - Chapter 10: Language – Reading Notes Intro  Humans used to be only species that were considered to have languages, systems that uses symbols to express many meanings  Most species can communicate with each other, but it doesn’t mean they have language Delvin So Thursday, January 12,2012  Language plays a crucial role in our day to day lives, but it also used in remember
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