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Lecture 2

Week 2 - Genetics and Heridity.docx

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PSYC 100
Jill L Atkinson

Thursday, January 19th Week 2 : Genetics and Intelligence Nature vs. Nurture  Nature is only genes that we receive from our parents, essentially hereditary  Nurture is everything else, physical ad social environment  How do the above two interact to affect development of a child  Can`t study people without taking into their account their behaviour Genotypes and Phenotypes  Genotypes – complete set of genes that are inherited, whereas Phenotypes – how those traits are physically expressed in appearance and behaviour  Phenotypes affected by environment even before conception  Genes can be turned on and off  If genotypes were expressed the same in all cells, then all cells would be exactly the same  Has to be someway cells turn into brain cells, nerve cells, skin cells, etc  Genes turned on and off just to make different cells just to adapt to the environment that one is on  Phenotypes affected by the environment even before conception  Eg. If rats don’t get their grooming in their early stages of life, they will become stressed for the remainder of their lives, even if they do not have a high stress phenotype and their stress phenotype becomes overly expressed than usual  Our parents upbringing and phenotype expression can affect ours in the end  Nucleus of every cell contains 23 pair of chromosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts also have chromosomal dna  Genes are sections of the chromosomes, and each gene is a segment of DNA which codes for the production a particular protein  22 of these pairs are about the same and carry same gene sequences relevant to same traits  Except to sex chromosomes, whereas females have XX and males XY  Father determines the sex of the baby  Y chromosome activates other chromosomes to product testosterone and thus the testes  As the X is so much bigger than Y, there are lots of stuff missing from Y, which explains why males suffer from genetic mutations more than females Genetic Mutations and Expression Thursday, January 19th  Mutations are caused by random errors and environmental factors such as carcinogens  When the egg and sperm are created during meiosis, there is a random crossover and shuffling of the two pairs  When talking about hereditary, only genetic twins can be genetically identical  In our bodies, only about 10% of genes provide active instruction at any given time  Some genes are turned on for a few hours during development and then are turned off never to be used again Mendelian Genetics  Third of human genes have two forms called alleles  Homozygous vs heterozygous  Dominant vs recessive Graph  Reaction ranges – worst to best outcome  Individuals are born with certain ranges, but have many possible outcomes  IQ vs environment graph  Restricted area – poor pre-natal care, born into poverty, poor education and nutrition, possible parental abuse  Average area – nothing special during pre-natal care, child goes to school and parents go to work, not much help on homework, doesn’t take child a lot of places  Enriched Area – vitamins, watches diet, exercises, very attentive to child, lots of extra experiences, great education  Raj – typical like queen’s students?  Tony – possible illness such as ADHD, if given special education
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