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Psychology 100.docx

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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Research 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM First steps to research 1. Hypothesis 2. Identify independent variables and dependent variables 3. Operationalize them 4. Conditions 5. Participant selection  How many from where (representativeness generalizability) 6. Data Collection  What data are you going to collect  Who will collect it?  How will it be collected  Valid (unbiased) and reliable 7. Analysis  What will you test?  How will you decide if you found a difference or not? Theories and Fields of Psychology 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Theories Founding fathers of psychology are Wilhem Wundt and William James.  Rationalism o The pursuit of truth through reason and logic o Used by ancient Greek philosophers  Materialism o Believes that the mind is purely part of the physical world  Empiricism o The belief that people can describe the world through rules generated by observation, quantification o Questions concerning the relationship between mind and body o Psychophysics  Measures the relationship between changes in magnitude of a stimulus and our sensation of the stimulus‟ change in magnitude  Structuralism o Analyzing complex phenomena and breaking them into smaller parts that are easier to understand  Determinism o Believes behaviour is the result of prior events  Functionalism o Examine behaviours, traits, and perceptions by asking “What are they for” o Based on Darwinian thinking  Terms: a. Behaviour- any action that can be observed, recorded and measured b. Psychology- science with a special focus on behaviour c. Operational Definition- a definition that quantifies and sets regulations in order to make something testable d. Objectivity- whether a result is influenced by emotions or personal opinions e. Inferential Statistics- test reliability of data, determine whether conclusions may be generalized Fields  Physiological Psychology o The psychology of behaviour o For example how drugs act on the part of the brain that controls pleasure  Comparative Psychology o Explains behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaption o Study inherited behavioural patterns  Behavioural Analysis o Studies the effect of the environmental events on behaviour o Interested in learning and motivation  Behavioural Genetics o Studies the role of genetics in behaviour  Cognitive Psychology o Study of complex behaviours and mental processes  Cognitive Neuroscience o Closely allied with cognitive and physiological psychology o Attempts to discover the particular brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes  Developmental Psychology o The study of physical, cognitive, emotional and social development (especially of children) o Effects of aging  Social Psychology o Studies the effects of people on people  Personality Psychology o The study of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviour o Developing tests to determine factors involved in susceptibility to certain mental disorders  Evolutionary Psychology o Seeks to explain the cognitive, social and personality aspects of psychology by looking at their adaptive significance o Use theories of evolution and natural selection  Clinical Psychology o The study of psychological disorders and problems of adjustment  Humanistic Psychology o Emphasizes human experience, choice, creativity, self- realization and positive growth (positive sides of human nature)  Gestalt Psychology o Emphasizes that cognitive processes can be understood Health Psychology 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Stress - emotional, physiological, cognitive, behavioural - causes: crises, important life events, daily hassles - Cognitive appraisal (Lazarus and Folkman‟s): I. Do I perceive a threat? II. If yes: Can I cope with the threat?  No: Greater Stress (worse health outcomes)  Yes: Less Stress (better health outcomes) - Self-efficacy: a person‟s belief that he or she is capable of the specific behaviour required to produce a desired outcome - Effects: I. Short-term:  Adrenaline secreted  Breathing speeds up  Digestion slows down (to divert energy elsewhere) II. Long-term:  Coronary heart disease  Weakened immune system  Increase in unhealthy behaviours - The Theory of Planned Behaviour: I. Attitude: II. Subjective Norms: our beliefs about what other people think we should do Perceived Behavioural Control: our confidence that we can achieve the desired behaviour *Pluralistic Ignorance: misperceptions of what is normative - Coping Styles and Strategies I. Problem-focused Coping: reduces or eliminates stressful situation II. Emotion-focused Coping: aims to reduce our emotional reaction to a stressful situation III. Proactive Coping: preventing stressful events from occurring IV.Stress Inoculation Training (SIT): prepares people for the negative effects of stressful events (like flu shot) - General Adaption Syndrome (GAS): I. Alarm: impairment of physiological function (shock) II. Resistance- normal function III. Exhaustion - Personality Types I. Type A Pattern: competitive, hostile, impatient II. Type B Pattern: not competitive, not hostile, patient Mental Disorders 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Abnormal Behaviour  Biological Factors: Brain function, genetic predisposition, disease producing microorganisms, physical and chemical aspects of the external environment  Psychological Factors: early family life, learning experiences, cognitive factors  Sociocultural Factors: Cultural views on normal and abnormal behaviour, social roles, expectations DSM Classification System Axis One: Major Clinical Syndromes  Schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative disorders, sexual, gender identity, eating, and sleep disorders Axis Two: Personality Disorders  Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant Axis Three: General Medical Conditions  Infectious and parasitic diseases, disease of the blod, nervous system, circulatory, respiratory, digestive and genitourinary systems Axis Four: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems  Stress associated with problems with social support, one‟s environment, the legal system ect.. Axis Five: Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF Scale)  Scale of functioning from 1-100 Diathesis- Stress Model 1. Diathesis (Predisposing causes): genetic predisposition, learned beliefs, pre-existing susceptibility 2. Stress (Precipitating Causes): triggering circumstances, stress, death of a loved one, 3. Maintaining Causes: can be negative ( sleep) or positive (ex. increased attention, losing weight) Three Prong Test Clinically Significant: symptoms that are sufficiently significant, marked or substantial in intensity or duration that patient would benefit from professional treatment. 1. Impairs patient‟s ability to function? (clinically significant) 2. No external causes 3. Involuntary Classification of Mental Disorders  Etiology- causes or origins of disorder  Comorbid- appearance of 2 or more disorders in one person  Actuarial Judgements- diagnosis based on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes  Neuroses- strategies of perception and behaviour that have gotten out of hand Disorders  Anxiety Disorders: sense of apprehension or doom; feelings of extreme fear and helplessness o Panic Disorder  Episodic attacks of acute anxiety  Feels like he/she is going to die o Phobic Disorder  Persistent irrational fears that interfere with normal activities  Agoraphobia:  Fear of being in open spaces  Rarely leaves house  Social Phobia:  Fear of being observed by others o OCD  Thoughts that will not leave and behaviours they cannot keep from performing.  Somatoform Disorders: bodily or physical problems for which there is no physiological basis o Somatization  Physical ailments for which there is no biological basis o Conversion Disorder  Loss of bodily function due to excessive anxiety (eg. Blindness) o Hypochondriasis: persistent and serious worry about developing an illness.  Dissociative Disorders: anxiety is reduced by a sudden disruption in consciousness. o Dissociative Amnesia  Traumatic events that lead to amnesia o Dissociative Fugue  Traumatic event that leads to someone forgetting his/her past, relocating, changing their identity and establishing a new life. o Dissociative Identity Disorder  Two or more separate personalities within an individual  Personality Disorders: Abnormal behaviour that impairs social functioning o Anti-social Personality Disorder  Failure to conform to decency, no guilt o Borderline Personality Disorder  Enduring pattern of instability  Substance Related Disorders o Substance Abuse  Recurrent use as a result of anxiety/stress o Substance Dependence  Need more and more, withdrawal  Schizophrenic Disorders: too much dopamine o Paranoid Schizophrenia  Delusions of grandeur or control o Disorganized Schizophrenia  Progressive and irreversible disorder, disturbances of thought o Catatonic Schizophrenia  Motor disturbances, negative symptoms (absence of normal behaviours o Undifferentiated Schizophrenia  Delusions, hallucinations and disorganized behaviours o Residual Schizophrenia  At least one of the four other episodes have occurred but nothing is currently observable o Symptoms  Positive Symptoms: Reflect an excess or distortion of normal brain function  Delusions, hallucinations, grossly disorganized behaviour, disorganized thought/speech  Negative Symptoms: reflect an absence of normal brain function  Dampened emotional response, slowing of movement, poverty/slowing of speech  Depressive Disorders: Tends to think things are internal, global and stable (ie. it‟s all my fault for everything and it will always be this way) o Dysthymia  Chronic, lasting two or more years o Seasonal Depressive Disorder  SAD  Increased eating/sleeping o Major Depression  Suicidal thoughts, lack of energy/interest  2 weeks-6 months o Bipolar I  Alternating manic and major depression  Manic: strong feelings of euphoria or elation and impulsivity o Bipolar II  Alternating hypomanic and depression episodes  Hypomania: shorter than manic, no psychotic symptoms  Shorter (simply episodes) o Cyclothymic  Long-term cycles between hypomania and depression o Double Depression  Chronic and major depression Treatments 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM  Classical Conditioning  Systematic Desensitization  Pairs feared stimulus with relaxation techniques  Flooding  Fully exposed to object of fear  Aversion Therapy  Pairs pleasant and undesirable stimulus with an aversive one  Therapy  Cognitive Therapy (Beck)  Clients identify thoughts and exam logic; form new rational thoughts  Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis)  Works to change inaccurate beliefs (ABC) emotion  Group Therapy  Cost effective  Lets professionals observe actual interactions  Community Psychology  Prevention, identifying at-risk individuals  Past Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Much of behaviour can be explained by unconscious wishes 0and desires  Internal conflicts  Hard to actually measure  Humanist  Explained by blocked wishes and desires  Helps client to understand these wishes/desires  Gestalt  Mindfulness training  Easier to gain control if they are more aware  Drug Therapy  Anti-depressant  Block reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin (ex. Tricyclics)  Schizophrenic Drugs  Decrease dopamine (ex. Chlorpromazine)  Anti-Manic Drugs  Work on GABA (LiCO3)  Anti-Anxiety  Work on GABA or serotonin (ex. Benzodiazepines)  The Nervous System 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Central Nervous System (CNS)  Communicates with all sensory organs and muscles  Composed of the brain and spinal cord  Two classes of cells: o Gilia or Glial Cells  Supportive and protective functions (helping neurons)  Supply oxygen and nutrients, remove dead germ cells, insulate axons of neurons o Neurons  Specialized cells for transmitting information  Compromised of a cell body and an axon (long fibre) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Cranial nerves and spinal nerves  Transmits sensory information from the body to the CNS  Transmits motor information and other commands in the other direction (from the CNS to muscles, glands and internal organs)  Comprised of : o Skeletal Nervous System  Sensory or afferent  Motor of efferent o Autonomic Nervous System (involuntary)  Sympathetic (fight or flight)  Parasympathetic (rest and digest) Terminology  Tracts- nerves that are entirely within CNS  Nerves- bundle of fibres (axons) that communicate in PNS and between PNS and CNS  Afferent Neurons (Sensory)- body to the brain  Efferent Neurons (Motor)- brain to the body  Interneurons- link sensory/motor neurons  Spinal reflexes- movements that do not involve input from the brain  Neurotransmitter- medium through which signals flow at chemical synapses  Presynaptic Neuron- neuron sending the message  Postsynaptic Neuron- neuron receiving the message  Cleft- space between two neurons  Excitory Synapses- transmitter substance excites the postsynaptic neuron and increases likelihood of firing  Inhibitory Synapses- lower the likelihood that the postsynaptic axons will fire  Graded Potentials- small voltages generated by the action of neurotransmitters. If these potentials, when summed in the cell body, is excitory enough, an action potential is generates. Information Pathway  Dendrites → cell body (analyzes) → axon (transmits) → spinal cord  If neuron is sufficiently depolarized it will generate an action potential  Many drugs and chemicals affect the body‟s nervous system by affecting the release, up take or reuptake of neurotransmitters Types of Neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine o Involved in memory, too little → Alzheimer‟s disease o Activation of motor neurons o amine  Norepinephrine and Epinephrine o Mood, attention, arousal o Excitory o Mood elevation drugs increase norepinephrine release o amine  Dopamine o Cognitive and motor control o Voluntary movements o Too much → schizophrenia o Too little → Parkinson‟s disease o amine  Serotonin o Mood, sleep and appetite o SSRI‟s reduce uptake of serotonin o Treat depression o amine  GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) o Inhibits neural activity o Too little → anxiety o Treats anxiety when increased (valium) o Amino acid  Opioids o Allow body to cope with pain o Peptide *Hormones are a lot like neurotransmitters however they travel long distances as opposed to short. The Brain  Left and Right Hemispheres o Connected by a nerve bundle called the corpus callosum o Left more specialized for speech and language o Right more appreciation  Seven Major Components o Brainstem  Lower part of the brain (connects it with the spinal cord)  Important for consciousness, sleep, breathing and heartbeat  Oldest part of the brain o Cerebellum  Pair of hemispheres  Involved in motor control  Coordination, timing, level of precision o *Hypothalamus  controls the hormonal system, body temperature, blood pressure, homeostasis  hunger and thirst (drives)  pituitary gland control  behaviours and responses to these drives o *Thalamus  regulates wakefulness and sleep  relays sensory information to cortex from basal ganglia o *Basal Ganglia  exchanges information with the cerebral cortex  procedural memory  voluntary movement, learning, remembering how to do something o *Limbic System  interlinked structures form border around the brainstem  motivation, emotion and some types of memory  contains:  Amygdala- emotional learning  Hippocampus- spatial memory, declarative memory o Cerebral Cortex  Outer layer (rind)  Most recently evolved  Communication with other cells  Humans have most cortical neurons  Four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal * means one in each hemisphere Cerebral Cortex  Frontal Lobe o Generates motor commands resulting in voluntary movement o Rational, goal-directed activity for directing and maintaining attention, for keeping ideas in the mind and for developing plans  Temporal Lobe o Storage of memories o The experiencing of strong emotions o Smell, taste, hearing  Smell- primary olfactory cortex  Taste- primary gustatory cortex o Destination of auditory info o Orientation and appreciation of time o Contain hippocampus and amygdala  Parietal Lobe o Receives information from thalamus concerning touch o Perception of spatial layout, moving through environment  Occipital Lobe o Vision o Thalamus to occipital lobe o Colour, movement, form Language Disorders  Aphasia: speech disorders o Broca‟s Aphasia  Cannot speak but can understand language  Left frontal lobe o Wernicke‟s Aphasia  Can make sounds but cannot understand language Sensation 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Sensation  Sensation is the process by which our sensory systems gather information  Perception is the selection, organization and interpretation of sensations Senses  All senses except smell first go to the thalamus and then are sent to their designated cortex  Senses: o Vision o Audition (chemical sense) o Olfaction (chemical sense) o Touch (somatosense)  Kinaesthetic senses- position of limbs, trunk and head  Vestibular senses- balance, sense of acceleration Terminology  Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies o All sensory receptors are uniquely sensitive to particular types of energy  Just-noticeable Difference o Minimum level of detectable difference in magnitude of a stimulus o Increases with intensity  Sensory adaption o Neurons fatigue after a few seconds of steady stimulation o When a neuron fatigues our sensitivity decreases o Allow us to ignore unchanging stimuli  Absolute threshold o Smallest detectable level of a stimulus  Transduction Conversion of physical energy to electrical energy  Habituation o Diminished response to a stimulus (chronic)  Searches o Parallel: all items can be identified at once o Serial: items are identified one at a time Sensory Coding  Place Code o Neurons in different places in the body code for different qualitative features  Population (pattern) Code o Being conveyed by a population of cells  Temporal Code o The rate at which the neurons fire gives information concerning the stimuli‟s intensity The Eye  Cornea o Transparent covering o Brings light into the eye o Acts as a fix-focus lens to give general focus  Pupil o Opening in the middle of the iris that controls how much light is let into the eye  Lens o Transparent structure behind the pupil o Through accommodation allows eye to focus on close or far objects  Retina o Located at the back of the eye o Where light is transduced into neural impulses o Location of photoreceptors  Rods: cannot process colour; peripheral  Cones: allow us to see colour; work best in bright light; most sensitive to reds and yellows  Fovea o Directly behind the pupil o Where most light is focused o No rods  Opponent-process theory o Three pairs of receptors  Red/green  Blue/yellow  Black/white  Photo pigments o Four different types o Three in cones, one in rods o Cones: blue, green and red o Rod: more sensitive to green/yellow (medium wavelengths)  Dorsal Stream o “where/how” of vision o perception of the location of objects such that we can direct appropriate actions o parietal cortex  Ventral Stream o “what” of vision o identify objects o temporal lobe Property Sound Light Frequency (wavelength) Pitch Colour Amplitude Loudness Brightness Complexity Timbre Colour Saturation  Hearing loss is caused by damage to cilia  Smell o easily triggers emotions because it is near the limbic system and goes straight to the olfactory cortex o population code o anosmia: when info gets disrupted on its pathway  Gustation o Closely related to smell o Signals sent to the brainstem and thalamus and finally to the primary gustatory cortex  Somatosense o Tactile system o Specialized cells that are sensitive to pressure, vibration, temperature and pain o Primary somatosensory cortex- skin surface o Thermoreceptors  Free nerve endings  Cold and hot fibres  If a temp is too cold/hot the body will not adapt Perception 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Psychophysics  Evolutionary history affects how we combine sensations into perceptions  Psychophysics is the study of how sensation relates to perception  Sensory thresholds o The point at which a stimulus triggers the start of an afferent nerve impulse  Difference threshold o JND o Minimum change required to detect a strength difference  Weber‟s Law o The JND depends on the magnitude of a stimulus o JND increases with intensity  Fechner‟s Law o In every domain each JND represents an equal step in the perceived magnitude of a stimulus  Steven‟s Power Law o Magnitude of sensation depends on the intensity of the sensation to the power of a constant that is related to which sense is being manipulated  Bias o The observers willingness to say „yes‟ or „no‟ independent of sensitivity  Signal Detection Theory o Mathematical theory of the detection of stimulation o Allows independent assessment of sensitivity and bias o Receiver-operating characteristic plots Psychophysics of Sounds  Sound uses place and temporal codes  Pitch o How high or low a sound is o Depends on the frequency o Higher pitch corresponds to rapidly alternating frequencies  Tonotopic Organization o Place code o High frequencies  Temporal Codes o Low frequency  Volley Principle o Fibres take turns generating action principles o Each fibre can only fire at 1000Hz however the nerve as a whole can produce volleys up to 5000Hz  Timbre Recognition o The brain puts together all of the information into what is called the timbre of sound o This allows you to recognize and identify particular objects  Intensity Cue o The timbre changes based on location (allows people to distinguish where sound comes from) o Also heard at slightly different times (ie. which ear)  Pinna o Top curved part of ear o Determine the elevation of sound Psychophysics of Vision  Stream Damage o Ventral  Visual Agnosia  Inability to visually recognize the identity of an object  Due to damage in the visual processing areas of the brain  Prosopagnosia  Inability to recognize familiar faces o Dorsal  Neglect  The inability to attend to one side of the visual field of an object  Neural Convergence o Signals from different neurons come together and meet at a single neuron which can add up the signals or compare them o Converges to one then diverges o Sensitive to orientation o Images that arrive on your retina are upside down and left- right reversed o Since the image projected on the retina is flat you have to infer the third dimension o Depth is one of the most complicated parts of sight because most of it is interred or learned through experience and size consistency o Other consistencies include lightness, form and colour consistencies o Our brain learns to infer much about what we sense with little information  Gestalt School o Perspective on perceptual psychology that developed in the th early 20 century o We have predispositions to see things in certain ways o Perception is different from the sum of sensations o We take more information from the nature of the form vs. actual form o Context is very important in perception  Ambiguous figures o Sometimes the same sensations can lead to different perceptions  Unconscious inference o When the brain arrives at a hypothesis that is most compatible with sensory input, experience and knowledge “constructivist”  Phi phenomenon o Instead of perceiving a set of changes freeze frames, we perceive constant motion Awareness 01/12/2013 6:44:00 PM Hemispheres  Different in structure and function  Left hemisphere controls: o Language o Math o Logic  Right Hemisphere controls: o Spatial abilities o Visual imagery o Music o Face recognition  Motor and sensory functions are crossed Brain Plasticity  The ability of the brain to change  Patterns of firing neurons can become a cell assembly Consciousness  Terminology o Dualism: reality consists of two different identities: mind and matter o Materialism: reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world of which the mind is a part of o Neural Correlates: the minimum neuronal mechanisms required to produce a specific conscious percept  Operational Definition of Consciousness o the person is able to report their mental state  Measures of Consciousness o Ability to remember a stimulus and report it o Accuracy o Confidence measures  Disorders of Consciousness o Blindsight  Not seeing consciously (unaware) however can see the direction o Coma  A state of extreme unresponsiveness in which an individual expresses no voluntary movement or discernible sleep/wake cycles o Vegetative State  Shows sleep/wake cycles but shows no signs of being aware of themselves or the environment o Minimally Conscious State  Minimal evidence of any form of awareness  Some evidence of voluntary behaviour o Brain death  Irreversible unconsciousness  Complete loss of brain function o Locked-in Syndrome  Conscious and aware  Cannot communicate verbally or move Sleep  Theories of Sleep o Restoration Theory  Sleep is essential for revitalizing and restoring the physiological processes that keep the body and mind healthy and properly functioning  Not completely correct because athletic performance does not suffer greatly  However our memory and ability to do mentally demanding tasks diminishes o Preservation and Protection Theory  Sleep serves an adaptive function that protects the animal during that portion of the 24-hour day o *Some studies suggest that sleep is important for the consolidation of memory and information since during REM the hippocampus is very active.  Stages of Sleep o Relaxed/Drowsy  Alpha activity in the range 8-12 Hz  Low amplitude o Stage One: Transition Cycle  The rhythmic electrical activity in your brain slows  Theta activity (3.5-7.5 Hz) o Stage Two  ~20 minutes  the brain begins to produce bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity known as sleep spindle o Stage Three: Slow-wave Sleep  Transition between light and deep sleep  Delta waves o Stage Four: Slow-wave Sleep  Deepest sleep state  Delta activity <3.5Hz  Least responsive to stimuli  Skeletal muscles are ~ completely inactive o REM (rapid eye movement)  Stage in whic
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