October 10, 12
The Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders, Part II
Mood: pervasive and sustained emotional response that may affect person’s perceptions.
Depression (how sad is too sad?)
Mania (ie: extreme elation) (can we be in too good of a mood?)
There are indicators of whether or not the mood is normal…
Mood Disorders – Episodes
Major Depressive Episode: five or more of the following present during the same 2
week period and represent change from previous functioning:
1. Depressed mood (can be irritable in youth)
2. Diminished pleasure/interest in almost all activities
3. Significant change in weight or appetite
4. Insomnia or hypersomnia
5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation
6. Fatigue or loss of energy
7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive/inappropriate guilt
8. Diminished ability to think/concentrate or indecisiveness
9. Recurrent thoughts of death/suicide
**at least one of the bolded symptoms must by present.
Manic Episodes: abnormally and persistently elevated, grandiose, or irritable mood
lasting at least 1 week (or shorter if hospitalized). At least 3 of these symptoms must be
1. Inflated selfesteem or grandiosity
2. Decreased need for sleep
3. Extra talkative or pressured speech
4. Flight of ideas: “mind racing:
6. Increase in goaldirected activity
7. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are dangerous (e.g., sex,
shopping sprees, gambling…)
Mixed Episode: criteria met for Manic Episode and Major Depressive Episode for 1
week. May experience daily switch, four days good, four days bad, etc.
Hypomanic Episode: criteria met for Manic Episode for 4 days, but symptoms NOT
severe enough to cause impairment or hospitalization. Less severe than full blown mania,
it is included in DSM though it isn’t a disorder, it is attached to disorders though.
Major Depressive Disorder October 10, 12
One or more major depressive episodes without history of Manic, Mized, or Hypomanic
Episodes. Just depression.
Bipolar I Disorder:
One or more Manic Episodes OR Mixed Episodes
Major Depressive Episode MAY have occurred in past/present (but not required for
Bipolar II Disorder:
One of more Major Depressive Episodes with at least one Hypomanic Episode. NO
Chronically depressed mood for at least 2 years (no Major Depressive episode or else it’s
called “double depression”)
Chronic, fluctuating mood between hypomania and depressive symptoms for at least 2
Potential Causes of Mood Disorders
Example: appraise situations negatively
o Negative events: stable/global/internal causes
o Positive events: unstable/specific/external causes
“Cognitive triad”: negative thoughts about self, present, future.
If depression runs in family, have a higher predisposition
Dissociation: A disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory,
identity, and perception. We know where we are, where we’ve been, and we’re connected
to ourselves. It can be a part of everyday life, but it becomes a disorder if it’s common.
One or more episodes or inability to recall important personal information;
usually traumatic in nature; not explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
Does not happen during the course of another psychological disorder (e.g.,
PTSD), and is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., brain injury)
As always, clinically significant distress/ impairment!
Dissociative Fugue October 10, 12