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Lecture 2

Week 20 PSYCH online reading.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100

PSYCH – Week 20 Online Readings Week 20: Motivation and Emotion Focus Question: Why do we do the things we do? Introduction – Motivation Motivation can be broadly defined as the (internal and external) desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal. Your textbook (p. 405) defines motivation as a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behaviour. Motivational states or drives:Areversible internal condition that affects the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual's behaviour. Regulatory Drives - We consider animals to be in a motivational state or experiencing a particular drive. Psychologists classify drives as regulatory and nonregulatory. - Regulatory drives are like hunger, thirst, thermoregulation and sleep that help to maintain physiological homeostasis (needed for immediate survival. - Nonregulatory drives fulfill some other evolutionary purpose, such as reproduction, safety, or cooperation. Homeostasis: Homeostasis can be described as the tendency of an animal to regulate its internal conditions (e.g., temperature, glucose levels, osmotic pressure of cells), by a system of feedback controls (like hunger and eating; thirst and drinking; shivering and putting on a sweater), so as to optimize health and functioning. From Drive toAction Motivational states are energizing; they direct an animal to act and direct behaivour toward a goal. EX: Hunger (internal state) motivates eating (external action). Nonregulatory Drives - Safety – fear, sleep, replenish bodies and avoid danger. - Reproduce – sexual, maternal, jealousy drives. - Social – acceptance, approval, motivates cooperation. - Educative – play and exploration Motivational States - Drives are reward-seeking states, and motivated behaviour is reinforced by the pleasure we experience one the reward has been obtained. - Reward system is related to the limbic system, particularly structurs located in the basal forebrain (middle of head, hehind the eyes). - 1950s, Olds and Milner discovered that rats would quickly learn to press a level for electrical stimulation of the brain. They even prized it over food, showing that animals can be motivated by rewards that have no obvious value for survival and drive reduction. Central State Theory - Central State Theory – certain hubs or nuclei in the brain involve detection of imbalances, decision-making and motor output. For example, you may not be aware that your body is low on salt, but you may crave potato chips. - The hypothalamus serves as one such hub, or central drive system. It sense internal states, such as levels of glucose and salt, and internal temperature; responds to hormone levels; and is connected to the pituitary gland, so it can orchestrate the release of hormones. It basically acts to restore bodily homeostasis. - Lesions in the hypothalamus lead to dysregulation in drives such as feeding, but also in things like salt balance. - Drive-reduction theory: Proposes that a drive produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is reinforcing. - Whether regulatory or nonregulatory, motivated behaviour is driven by rewards. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic - Intrinsic incentives result from an internal need, whereas extrinsic incentives result from gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence. - Both types of motivation affect our effort and persistence in working toward a goal. However, sometimes extrinsic incentives can actually reduce motivation. o Over-justification effect: This hypothesis predicts that people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity will stop the activity if the extrinsic reward is removed. This cessation of previously enjoyable behaviour is the over-justification effect. - Not all rewards result in decreased interest in an activity that had been previously associated with intrinsic motivation. EX: winning a gold medal. Hunger - Both internal and external factors underlie eating behaviour - Case study of hunger pangs (1920s, Cannon and Washburn). Stomach cues cause hunger, though their experiment was flawed. - Many sensors: - Early researchers were influenced by the drive reduction theory and spent time trying to find eating- related brain mechanisms that act similarly to a homeostatic mechanism. Frolich noted some patients with damage to hypothalamus became obese quickly. - Researchers now have identified the arcuate nucleus (in hypothalamus) as the ‘appetite control center’. - Nucleus contains 2 types of neurons that when stimulated, have opposite effects on eating; one stimulates behaviour, one suppresses it. - These neurons are the target sites of hormones, providing cues for eating. External Cues for Hunger - Social or aesthetic factors that make us hungry? - The choice of what to eat, where, when etc. Time of the day, we eat more when we’re around other people who are eating, and eat best looking foods. - Being on a diet may reduce food intake, but may also result in increased food intake. Abstinence violation effect (AVE), where people figure they’ve blown their diet and simply eat as much as possible Eating Continued - The brain contains pleasure centers that respond strongly to the presence of specific nutrients, such as sugars and fats. Hence cravings for chocolate and the pleasure of eating a variety of foods. It’s often more than nutrition at work… - **Something in the brain finds pleasure in activities that are not directly related to survival or homeostasis. Electrically Stimulating the Brain Researchers have shown that: 1. Animals are highly motivated to turn on stimulating electrodes implanted in their medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and nucleus accumbens. 2. Recording electrodes in these structures become active when animals receive food and other rewards when performing various tasks. 3. When the two structures are destroyed, animals stop working to obtain rewards. ESB is so rewarding that it can motivate rats to move in response to electrical signals sent remotely to their brains. Two electrodes are placed in the somatosensory cortex of the rat’s brain, one in each cortical hemisphere, in the region sensitive to the whiskers of each side of the face (i.e., the whisker region of the rat’s homunculus). These electrodes are used to signal the animal to move right (with stimulation of the cortex sensitive to the right whiskers) or left (with stimulation of the cortex sensitive to the left whiskers). When the rat moves in the direction it was signaled to go, it receives electrical stimulation to the MFB. Sex Drive - Sex depends heavily on the pleasure principle, yet sexual motivation is not based solely on reproduction. - Sexual orientation – based on neural mechanisms, hormones, foetal development, genes, and various social factors. E.g., birth-order effect in gay men. - Basically, for all drives the mechanisms motivating human and animal behaviour are very complex and include the interplay of both internal and external factors. Emotion Defining Emotions - Emotion is a difficult concept for psychologists to define. - Textbook: “Arelatively brief display of a feeling made in response to environmental events having motivational significance or in response to memories of such events.” In this definition, feelings and emotions are synonymous. - Damasio, neurologist who studies emotions, separates feelings from emotions. He argues that emotions are internal reactions that occur automatically and unconsciously in response to certain stimuli; feelings occur when neural reactions become conscious. In other words, emotions are the affective component and feelings the cognitive component. Predicting Emotions - Facial expressions, how we know we’ll react to something, how we know other people will react to something, based on experience. Tone of voice, words, facial expressions, way body is held, etc. - 1971, Izard found that people in different cultures generate and recognize the same basic emotional expressions. Ekman identified seven basic emotions: happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, contempt, and disgust. - People everywhere can identify reliably at least six basic emotions: anger, happiness, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear. Moreover, people from different cultures display similar facial expressions when experiencing particular emotions. It is clear that a number of facial expressions are universal. Some of these basic emotion expressions are easier to recognize than others. - Each emotion involves movements of several sets of facial muscles ADistributed System - The universality of these bas
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