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Lecture 2

Week 21 Online Lecture Summary

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PSYC 100

Week 21 Online Notes Personality Theories • Personality— a particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another • Minor changes in behavior do not usually affect what we think of as personality • The study of personality focuses on describing stable differences among people • There have been factors tied to certain personality types • 4 different personality perspectives 1. Trait: • Traditional, classic approach to the psychological study of personality • People do not differ just physically but also psychologically • Classifies and describes psychological characteristics by which people differ consistently between situation and over time • Goal is to find a small set of meaningful traits that can be described effectively the personality of any individual • Factor analysis— statistical analysis that examines all of the correlations between all of the items and determines of any of them are highly correlated with each other o Technique used to reveal the factors of basic dimensions that underlie a questionnaire data set o Factor— a general type or category that contributes to an outcome o Data is collected from a large sample and then complied into one file and by using statistical analysis all the correlations among the questionnaire items are examined and determined if any of them group together— want to see if there is a common theme that exists between the groups of factors • Raymond Cattell said there here are 16 core factors that describe all possible personalities • 16 PF Questionnaire— multiple choice personality questionnaire developed by Cattell to measure 16 normal adult personality dimensions o Consists of 200 statements regarding specific aspects of behavior • The five factor model is the current and best trait model and the dominant approach used today to measure and study personality • Has been found that only 5 personality dimensions capture all personality types— known as the big five • Big five— five personality dimensions derived from analyses of the natural-language terms people use to describe themselves and others 1. Openness to Experience: • More likely to change careers as an adult, perform better in job training programs and are more likely to play a musical instrument and display less racial prejudice • Interested in travel, have many different hobbies, like to experiment with different types of cuisine and have friends who share their interests 2. Conscientiousness: • Tend to be more sexually faithful, receive higher job performance ratings, get better grades in school • Smoke less, drink less, drive more safely, eat healthily, and live longer • Have good leadership skills, make long term plans and have an organized support network • Are faithful and reliable 3. Extroversion: • Live and work with more people, attend parties, rated as popular and seen as leaders • Have good social skills, maintain numerous friendships and participate in sports and clubs where they can gather with others • Find socializing and working with others fulfilling 4. Agreeableness: • Less likely to be arrested in adulthood, more willing to lend money, have higher grades in school and exhibit fewer behavioral problems in childhood • More forgiving, believe in cooperation, use inoffensive language • Pushovers and do not seek confrontation 5. Neuroticism: • pay attention to threats and unpleasant experiences • anxious, worried, full of guilt, perfectionistic and pessimistic • experience less marital satisfaction and have a higher frequency to divorce • more susceptible to depression and anxiety • negative when they process information • Called the NEO Personality Inventory • Reliably and significantly predicts behaviors • Traits influence our behavior • Personality traits may correspond with the hereditability of aggression or social interaction • Personality is affected by the interaction between genetics and environment • Our traits remain fairly consistent over time but we also behave according to our social norms and environmental cues • Environmental effects and learning can lead to personality change • Temperament can act on the environment and elicit negative or positive feedback on a person’s personality 2. Psychodynamic: • Psychodynamic— the general term for psychological theories that emphasize the relationship between the conclusions and of the interaction among the various drives and forces within a person • Sigmund Freud—Viennese physician who proposed that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives triggered by events in a person’s life o Primary theorist in psychodynamic literature o Specialized in neurology and treated patients who complained of pain or paralysis but exhibited no detectable medical problems o Believed childhood experiences caused their suffering —patients could not consciously remember these events o Would analyze what the patients said freely to uncover their buried memories o Used hypnosis and was interested in posthypnotic suggestion • Concluded that our mind is more than just conscious perception and believed the mind largely consists of unconscious forces and desires • Thought explanations for bizarre human behavior lie hidden in the unconscious— behavior results from how a person negotiates conflicting, deep-rooted desires and instincts, such as sex and aggression • Psychoanalytical theory— Freud’s theory of personality based on conflict between the conscious and unconscious mind and on developmental stages tired to various bodily functions • used to describe personality and the techniques he used to examine patients • believes the unconscious was a reservoir filled with mostly unacceptable feelings, desired and memories • didn’t believe that unconscious forces determine all of our behavior • said 3 parts of the mind interact to influence 1. The ID is a completely unconscious reservoir of psychic energy. It strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on a pleasure principle and demanding immediate gratification 2. The ego is largely conscious, mediating the conflicting demands of the ID, the superego, and reality. It strives to satisfy the ID’s desires in appropriate ways that bring pleasure rather than pain. It operates on a reality principle 3. The superego is partly conscious, partly unconscious structure that strives to live up to internalized ideals and desires to follow the rules and restrictions society places on us. The superego punishes the ego, for example by creating feelings of guilt and shame • what makes you be you is an interaction of both conscious and unconscious process of the mind that can conflict with each other • the conscious mind is partially aware of its attempts to follow social rules— wrestles with powerful aggressive and sexual drives that you are unaware of or unwilling to acknowledge • the ID, Ego and Superego don’t always agree— internal conflict • Freud believes personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure seeking energies of the ID become focused on distinct erogenous zones on the body • Each state presents a different challenge that must be worked through— if completed a healthy personality is achieved • If certain issues or conflicts are not resolved at the right stage fixation occurs • Fixation— energies remain focused on a particular stage or activity without progress o a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an early psychosexual stage o until the conflict is resolved the individual will stay stuck at that stage • also believed that people handled fixations or other unwanted thoughts and desires through the defence mechanisms— help hide the elements from the ego’s awareness • defense mechanism— mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with the internalized prohibitions of the superego o psychodynamic perspective also specifies that peoples personalities are influences by the defense mechanisms that they use to keep unacceptable or anxiety-producing motives and thoughts from their conscious awareness o Anna Freud said that the mind is affected by unacceptable of anxiety-producing motives and thought — we employ mental mechanisms to keep these motives and desires from out conscious awareness— like repression o Proposed that defense mechanisms preserve self- esteem and regulate anxiety o Separated into 3 categories according to the degree in which they promote either ineffective or effective behavior 1. Immature defenses— distort reality the most and lead to the most ineffective behavior • Projection, regression, displacement 2. Intermediate defenses— involves less distortion of reality and lead to somewhat more effective behavior • Repression, reaction formation, sublimation 3. Mature defenses— least reality distortion and are associated with the most adaptive coping • Humor and suppression • With suppression negative information is available to the conscious mind but doesn’t overrun it and the person can thing about it when he or she chooses o With mature defences people experience richer friendships, more harmonious marriages, greater job satisfaction and greater general happiness compared to people with immature defenses • Unconscious— refers to information processing of which we are unaware • Psychoanalysis— form of therapy aimed at provided the client with insight into his or her unconscious motivations and impulses o numerous methods used to try and determine what is hidden in peoples unconscious minds 1. Free association— method of Freudian analysis in which an
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