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Lecture 2

Week 20 Online Lecture Summary

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PSYC 100

Week 20 Online Notes Motivation and Emotion 1. Motivation: • Motivation— a general tern for phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behavior • Broadly defined as the internal and external desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal • Drive— a reversible internal condition that affects the nature, strength and persistence of an individual’s behavior • a drive is a motivation state • humans are animals and share a lot with other animals, especially other mammals • animals are considered to be in a motivational state or experiencing a particular drive • drives are classified as: o Regulatory:  hunger, thirst, thermoregulation and sleep  maintain psychological homeostasis  Needed for immediate survival  Related to specific areas of the hypothalamus o Noregulatory:  Reproduction— sexual, maternal, and sexual jealously drives that motivate us to reproduce, care for our young and guard our mates  Safety— drives such as sleep and fear that motivate us to replenish our bodies and avoid danger  Social— approval and acceptance drives that motivate us to cooperate  Educative— plat and exploration which motivate us to practice our skills and learn about our environments  Sex and achievement contribute to survival in an indirect way • Motivational states are energizing— direct an animal to act and direct behavior toward a goal • Motivational states help animals sustain their behavior until they achieve their goal • Drives are reward-seeking states • Motivated behavior is reinforces by the pleasure we experience once the reward has been obtained • The reward system evolved to reinforce behaviors that result in a reduction in drive • Related to the limbic system— particularly structures located in the basal forebrain ( middle of the head behind the eyes) • James Olds and Peter Milner used electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) • Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)—applying small electrical shocks to different parts of the brain • The power of ESB to drive behavior shows animals can be motivated by rewards that have no obvious value for survival and drive reduction • Used to map out neural reward centres— two subcortical structures are especially important o The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) o The nucleus accumbens of the basal ganglia • Denis Dutton and Steven Pinker say that aesthetic pursuits are vicarious means to satisfy other drives— reproductive and social • These achievements demonstrate skill and creativity and are associated with high status— make one more competitive as a mate • The extent that acting in accordance with these drives is rewarding— the same reward/pleasure system of the brain is involved • Humans have the same motivational mechanism as animals but are operating in a more complex brain • Central State Theory— certain hubs or nuclei in the brain involves: o detection of imbalances— low levels of energy/glucose, salt o decision making— executing a plan to seek food and salt o motor output— actions needed for hunting/food gathering • the hypothalamus serves as a hub or central drive system o senses internal states such as levels of glucose, hydration, salts, and internal temperature o responds to hormone levels o connected to the pituitary glad  orchestrates the release of hormones o acts to restore bodily homeostasis • Lesions in the hypothalamus lead to dysregulation in drives such as feeding, temperature, salt balance etc. • Some homeostatic behavior is automatic— shivering sweating to maintain temperature • Behaviors such as putting on a sweater to regulated temperature is motivated • Drive-reduction theory— proposes that a drive produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviors. Reduction of drive is reinforcing • According to theory organisms have needs • Those needs lead to drives • Motivated behavior is a dorm of drive reduction • The actions that organisms take to fulfill drives are complicated • Central state theory can explain why we feel some need or are motivated to resolve them—cannot explain the specific action we take • Explains drives but not the incentives that lead us to solve a need in a specific way • External (intrinsic nonregulatory) motivate can override apparent homeostatic mechanisms • Whether regulatory or nonregulatory motivated behavior is driven by rewards • Emotion and motivation are closely related • Intrinsic incentives result from an internal need • Extrinsic incentives result from gaining a reward of avoiding an unpleasant consequence • Both types of motivation affect out effort and persistence in working toward a goal — perform an action that is intrinsically motivated because the act is satisfying in and of itself • perform actions that extrinsically motivated either to achieve a reward or to avoid something aversive • sometimes extrinsic incentives reduce motivation • over-justification effect— the hypothesis predicts that people who shift from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards for engaging in an activity will stop the activity if the extrinsic reward is removed the cessation of previously enjoyable behavior is the over-justified effect • hunger is an example of how motivation can play a role in everyday lives • both internal and external factors underlie eating behavior • hunger pangs ( contractions of the stomach) might be important to signal hunger • stomach contractions coincide with feelings of hunger— led to the belief that stomach cues cause hunger • stomach fullness does influence feelings of satiety— pressure sensors keep you from eating till the stomach bursts • neural sensors signal the nutritive value of food and influence the sense of satiety including glucose and fat levels • glucose is a simple sugar used in most body cells for energy • most food is converted to glucose • decreasing glucose levels leads to the sense of hunger • i
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