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Lecture 6

PSYC100 13/14 Week 6.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 6: The Treatment of Psychological Disorders Pearson Online - “Best” treatment is most suited to its purpose - Psychological treatment acts to reduce or remove clinically significant symptoms - Symptoms must be measured in a reliable, verifiable way before and after treatment Assessment - Purpose to evaluate a client’s symptoms within the context of his/her personal history - Done before and after treatment to determine effect - Clinical Interviews o Structured  Predetermined questions o Unstructured  Questions asked relevant to specific client o Semi-structured  Predetermined questions expanded upon based on responses - Cognitive and Neuropsychological Tests o To assess clients with brain injuries, learning disabilities, etc. o Examine aspects of cognitive functioning  Intelligence  Academic ability  Memory  Processing speed  Language functions  Executive functioning (planning and reasoning) o Medical imaging techniques  CAT scan  MRI/fMRI scan  PET scan  EEG - Behavioural Monitoring o Recording specific behaviours and the circumstances around them o To learn about frequency of target behaviours, antecedent circumstances that trigger behaviours, reinforcements that perpetuate behaviours o Performed by client or staff Mental Health Care Settings - Private practice/ community agency clinic - Group homes/ halfway houses o For more serious mental disorders o Provide care and support under supervision/consultation of a psychiatrist/psychologist - Nursing homes o For older adults o Staff typically not trained in treating people with mental disorders - Psychiatric hospitals o Provide in-patient and out-patient care o For serious mental disorders Mental Health Treatment Providers - Psychiatrist o Medical degree with specialization in psychiatry o Can prescribe medication - Clinical Psychologist o Doctoral degree in clinical psychology o Training in assessment and treatment of mental disorders o Training in statistics and research methods - Counselling Psychologist o Doctoral degree in counselling psychology o Similar to clinical psychology; less focus on statistics and research, more focus on clinical practice - Psychiatric Social Worker o Master’s degree in social work with specialization in psychiatric issues - Psychiatric Nurse o Nursing degree with specialized training in psychiatric issues - Psychological Associate o Master’s degree in clinical psychology, but not doctoral - Counsellor/Psychotherapist o Any educational background Support Groups - Led by mental health professional - Helps individuals work on issues that do not require intensive treatment or in-patient care - Goal to bring individual to functional, healthy state Assessment and Services - Assessment o Evaluate patient’s symptoms - Treatment plan o What to do? - Treatment o Choose provider and location o Patient undergoes treatment - Evaluation o Re-evaluate patient’s symptoms Pharmacotherapy (Drug Therapy) - Affect neurotransmitters o Increase or decrease the amount available - Neurotransmitters o Dopamine  Motor control, memory, problem solving, reward system  Attaches emotional value to external events, motivation o Norepinephrine  Induces alertness, arousal, “fight-or-flight” o Serotonin  Mood, sleep, appetite  Induces impulsive and aggressive behaviour o GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid)  Excitation and anxiety  Induces relaxation - Antipsychotic Drugs o Most treat only positive symptoms of schizophrenia reduce dopamine and serotonin activity o Clozapine treats both positive and negative symptoms without motor-related side effects - Antidepressant Drugs o Tricyclics  Block reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin o Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
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