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Lecture 5

PSYC100 13/14 Week 5.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 5 Pearson Online Psychoactive Substance - Chemical substance that acts on central nervous system; affects brain functions, causing changes in emotions perceptions, thoughts Substance-Related Disorders - Substance-use disorders o Dependence  Repeated pattern of use resulting in tolerance, withdrawal, cravings, difficulty cutting down despite the desire to o Abuse  Diagnosed when repeated use of the substance results in serious adverse consequences  Must meet one of the criteria • Repeated failure to fulfill important obligations • Repeated use of substance in dangerous situations • Repeated legal problems related to substance • Continued use despite causing problems in social/interpersonal relationships - Substance-induced disorders o Intoxication o Withdrawal Differential Diagnosis Schizophrenia - Lasts at least six months and includes at least one month of active phase symptoms o Delusions o Hallucinations o Disorganized speech o Grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour o Negative symptoms - Schizophreniform disorder: symptoms last from 1-6 months - Schizoaffective disorder: experiences a mood episode (eg. Major depression/mania) at the same time as symptoms of schizophrenia - Positive symptoms: reflect an excess or distortion of normal function o Eg. Delusions, hallucinations, unwanted thoughts - Negative symptoms: reflect a diminution or loss of normal function o Eg. Flat emotional responses, slow speech and movement Psychotic Disorders - Delusional disorder: marked by non-bizarre, possible delusions - Brief psychotic disorder: an episode of psychotic symptoms that lasts between one day and one month - Shared psychotic disorder: a delusion that is similar to a delusion already held by someone close to the individual - Substance-induced psychotic disorder: psychotic symptoms are a direct physiological consequence of taking a psychoactive drug or a medication, or exposure to a toxin Major Depression - Must last at least two weeks - Highly recurrent - Changes in eating and sleeping patterns, weight - Lack of energy, loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities - Difficulty concentrating - Worthlessness, suicidality Dysthymia - Chronic depressed mood that lasts for at least two years - At high risk for developing major depression superimposed on dysthymia Seasonal Affective Disorder - Depression at certain times of year - Oversleeping, overeating Bipolar Disorder - Alternating manic and major depressive episodes o Manic: racing thoughts and speech, less sleep, impulsivity, psychotic symptoms (eg. delus
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