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Lecture 4

PSYC100 13/14 Week 4.docx

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PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 4: The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders Pearson online: Clinically significant: Symptoms are sufficiently significant, marked, or substantial in intensity or duration that the patient would benefit from professional treatment Diathesis-Stress Model - Describes how an interaction between genes and environment can result in a mental disorder - Diathesis: vulnerability Three-Prong Test - Symptoms qualify as a mental disorder if they o Cause a clinically significant impairment in an individual’s ability to function o Are not a predictable reaction to an external event o Are not the result of an individual’s voluntary choice Anxiety Disorder - An irrational fear of situations or stimuli that are not actually dangerous; involves fear or nervousness that is excessive, irrational, and maladaptive - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder o Develops after someone experiences an extremely traumatic event o Main features: intense fear in response to traumatic event, re-experiences of the event, avoidance of reminders of the event, physiological symptoms (eg. Sleeping) - Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Excessive and uncontrollable worrying about everyday events - Panic Disorder o When panic reaction (eg. Panic attack) occurs without being caused by a particular fear-inducing situation; repeated episodes of sudden, intense fear - Social Anxiety Disorder o Irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, or embarrassed in public - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder o Obsessions: recurrent, unwanted thoughts/images that an individual recognizes are irrational o Compulsions: can take the form of repetitive behaviours, or specific mental acts - Phobic Disorder o A panic-like reaction that occurs in response to specific stimulus or situations o Agoraphobia  Experiencing intense anxiety about being in situations where escape
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