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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 11 LECTURE NOTES- operant and classical conditioning What kind of learning is riding a bike? a) classical conditioning b) Operant conditioning (repeated behaviours of good outcomes, such as balancing and riding at a specific speed as to not fall) c) Habituation d) observational learning What about getting a vaccination needle? classical conditioning: you learn to associate the sight of the nurse and needle with pain; learns to anticipate pain -behaviours that are learned through experience are learned -we learn through ASSOCIATION Habituation: a stimulus predicts nothing of consequence; ie it's not relevant or important Operant conditioning: associations between our behaviours and outcomes. A particular behaviour predicts a particular state of affairs Classical conditioning: association between expectations out stimuli and outcome, affecting behaviour contingency: predictive relationship b/w 2 stimuli, or b/w a stimuli and behaviour, or b/w a behaviour and outcome (eg. sight of nurse + needle predicts a pain in the arm) VEGETATIVE STATE: -eyes open, can smile, etc -no evidence of reliable or predictive responding from external stimuli -no evidence that patient is aware of themselves or surroundings You think a person might be in a vegetative can you tell she is not? a) her eyes are open b) her eyes are open and she once smiled after you mentioned her husband (ONCE.... not reliable) c) she blinks a lot, and often blinks after her name is spoken (blinks a lot anyways) d) none of these actions OPERANT CONDITIONING: Three-Term Contingency Antecedent stimulus (context)-->Behaviour (response)-->Consequences (effect) eg. no light in the room-->turn on light switch-->light turns on eg. bike is wobbling-->boy rides the bike slower-->bike stops wobbling eg. Thorndike's puzzle box Thorndike's Law of Effect Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation. eg. skinner box Operant conditioning: Process by which the effect of an operant response changes the likelihood of the response's recurrence in the future Operant response: Any behavioural act that has some effect on the environment Reinforcer: Stimulus change that reinforces a particular response NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT escape response: response-->removal of something bad avoidance learning: learning to make the escape respon
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