Class Notes (835,489)
Canada (509,211)
Psychology (1,994)
PSYC 100 (1,094)


6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 11 ONLINE LECTURE NOTES: Learning and Behavior Learning: a more-or-less permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from experience (not from typical development) Nativists: Descartes; almost all behavior is reflexive or due to inborn ideas; we are born the way we are; experiences play a minimal role Empiricists: humans are born with no knowledge of behavior, it is learned through experience; external sensation + human reason = knowledge CLASSICAL CONDITIONING -learning in which one learns to associate two stimuli -thought to be reflexive learning, with little conscious, deliberate thought; no thinking, just reacting -manipulates a reflex or instinct -unconditioned stimuli--> unconditioned response -neutral stimuli + unconditioned stimuli--> conditioned stimuli -conditioned stimuli--> conditioned response 1. ACQUISITION -learning of the new response -gradual learning curve -neutral stimuli should come before AND after unconditioned stimuli Delay conditioning: -most effective -slight onset b/w onset of CS and onset of UCS -CS predicts occurrence of UCS -contiguity: CS and UCS occur close together in time Backward conditioning: -least effective -UCS before CS (eg. food before bell) Simultaneous conditioning: -CS and UCS at the same time Trace conditioning: -presenting CS, removing it, presenting UCS -relies on memory tracing (subject remembering the CS) -only effective if the UCS is presented immediately after CS Generalization: subjects will generalize their conditioned responses to similar conditioned stimuli Discrimination: subjects will only have a conditioned response towards a specific conditioned stimuli; works to make response more specific and gets rids of generalization Habituation: involves diminished responses to a stimuli after repeated exposure; slow and gradual; fits operational definition of learning (eg. new house smell) Adaptation: quick; due to neural fatigue (eg. perfume store) Learning needs both: Contiguity: CS and UCS occur close together in time Contingency: Predictive value; the CS is consistent 2. EXTINCTION -if you start presenting the CS without the UCS, the CR diminishes -eg. ring a bell w/o food enough times, and the dog will no longer respond to the bell by salivating 3. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY -subject response to CR after extinction; CR is not lost, but inhibited -easier for subject to pick up CR if CS is introduced again, v.s. learning it brand-new -the longer the extinction the period, the less likely spontaneous recovery occurs Behaviorism in Humans -Watson conducted the "Little Albert" experiment -conditioned response of fear to white fluffy things -eg. conditioning with drugs -drug stuff + location = CS, body's defensive system = CR -if the location + stuff isn't the same, there is no CS and thus no CR, leading to no defence for a dose of the same amount were they to take it in the usual location OPERANT CONDITIONING Instrumental Learning: subjects act in ways that are instrumental to obtaining satisfaction (Thorndike); synonymous with operant conditioning Law of Effect: behaviors with good outcomes are likely repeated; behaviors with bad outcomes are not likely repeated -classical conditioning is a biologically significant event with a neural stimulus -operant conditioning is a biologically significant event following a response Operant: the response -important part is the consequence of the response, not the response itself -for behaviors that aren't reflexive or natural Skinner: instead of the drive of satisfaction, it is the drive of reinforcement Reinforcement: the stimulus change that occurs after a response that increases the frequency of that response Punishment: the stimulus change that occurs after a response that decreases the frequency of that response REINFORCEMENT: increases behavior Positive Reinforcement: a reward that is presented after a response that encourages the repetition of that response -eg. cat presses lever, is rewarded with food Negative Reinforcement: something is taken away after a response that encourages the repetition of that response -rat pressing a level eliminated uncomfortable
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.