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Lecture 2

PSYC100 13/14 Week 20.docx

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PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 20: Motivation and Emotion Pearson Online: Motivation - Internal and external desires, needs, and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal Drives (Motivational Sates) - Reversible internal conditions that orient individuals towards specific types of goals - Are reward-seeking states; motivated behaviour is reinforced by pleasure of obtaining reward - Types of Drives: o Regulatory  Maintain physiological homeostasis; needed for immediate survival • Regulation of internal conditions (e.g. temperature) o Non-regulatory  Fulfill other evolutionary purposes; contribute to survival indirectly • Safety o Motivate us to replenish our bodies and avoid danger (e.g. sleep, fear) • Reproductive o Motivate us to reproduce, care for our young, and guard our mates (e.g. sexual, maternal, and sexual jealousy drives) • Social o Motivate cooperation (e.g. approval and acceptance drives) • Educative o Motivate us to practice our skills and learn about the environment (e.g. play and exploration) Theories of Motivation - Central state theory o Hubs/nuclei in the brain involve detection of imbalances (e.g. low levels of glucose), decision making, and motor output  Hypothalamus senses internal states, responds to hormone levels, and is connected to the pituitary gland, orchestrating the release of hormones > restores bodily homeostasis o Explains drive but not incentives that lead us to solve a need in a specific way - Drive-reduction theory o Drives produce an unpleasant s
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