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Lecture 2


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PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

WEEK 21 LECTURE NOTES: EMOTION EMOTION: behavior (approach/engage; withdraw/disengage)-->physiological arousal (deactivation of PNS, activation of PNS)-->subjective experience (conscious, individuals experiences, internal) EMOTIONS AND SURVIVAL -Darwin suggested that facial expressions were a mean of communication in the absence of language -can read emotions through facial expressions of others; learns to avoid or engage that person -nonverbal communication was a mean of survival -certain facial expressions are "hardwired" and universal --> extinctive smile if happy, frown if angry -eg. fear--> flee and avoid danger; love-->entice you to reproduce + care for offspring -negative facial expressions are detected quicker--> quicker to find threat + respond -positive emotions promote growth, bonding, reproduction--> seeking a mate, taking care of offspring PARASYMPATHETIC + SYMPATHETIC NS parasympathetic: active when you're relaxed sympathetic: activated when you're under stress both under autonomous nervous system Q: which of the organs listed below is NOT directly involved in the autonomic nervous system? a)heart b)sweat glands c)smooth muscle d)skeletal muscle e)salivary glands -->all the other organs are not under our conscious control -->ANS responsible for f'ns which we have no conscious control over EMOTIONS + PHYSIOLOGY Parasympathetic NS: active when you're at rest (digestion, regular breathing, energy conservation) --> under stress, parasympathetic NS is inactivated and sympathetic NS is activated in response to external stimuli -->like a see-saw equilibrium BRAIN + EMOTIONS LIMBIC SYSTEM -thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala -thalamus: sensory inputs pass through it to the higher levels of the brain -hypothalamus: modulates the ANS and homeostasis f'ns (sleep, hunger, etc) -amygdala: response + identification of fear and carnal emotions; assigns if something is positive or negative, if it's a threat, etc. --> emotions are felt directly through amygdala or indirectly through the prefrontal cortex to amygdala, depending on the context of the situation (eg. seeing a bear at the zoo vs if you're camping outdoors) WHICH COMES FIRST? JAMES-LANGE THEORY -event-->physiological rxn-->awareness of physiological arousal-->emotion -panic attack: sudden, unexpected onset of fear/anxiety, accompanied by physiological symptoms, thoughts of death or suffocation -->reaches its peak within 10 minutes -->misinterpreted the situation cognitively so it's negative: experiences fear -->physiological + cognitive response precedes the emotions -->physiological changes misinterpreted as fear -awareness of physiological changes is interpreted into an emotion CANON-BARD THEORY -emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: -->physiological responses -->subjective experience of emotion TWO-FACTOR THEORY BY SCHACHTER AND SINGER -physiological reaction towards action/situation + cognitive interpretation (beliefs towards actions/situation) = emotion -to experience emotion one must: -->be physiologically around -->cognitively label the rxn simultaneously Q: after skydiving w/ a girl, boy goes, "wow, my heart's pumping really fast, I must be falling in love with her". What theory of emotion explains this? a)JL theory b)CB theory c)SS 2-factor theory d)facial feedback hypothesis e)none of the above -->he experienced the physiological response and attributed that to the situation it was in and interpreted the heart pumping to emotions of love -->if it was the CB theory (which doesn't take into the cognitive aspect), he wouldn't have said that -->if it was the 2-factor theory, he would've associated the physiological response w/ the statement he made (
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