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Week 18.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Week 18: Being a Role Model The Social Brain: Explains the evolution of intelligence • The reason species have developed brains so large and metabolically demanding is to meet the cognitive demands of social living • Social animals aren’t just in a struggle with their environment to survive, they also compete for interpersonal attention and resources • Greater cognitive abilities survive evolution Inductive Learning: • Responsible for empathetic moral development • Involves: Inductive Discipline: Guiding behaviour introducing appropriate limits and setting up reasonable consequences while also explaining why. Parenting Styles: identified by Baumrind: • Authoritative: Are highly demanding of their children and highly responsive to them. They are unlikely to physically discipline their children and will more often explain the reasons behind the rules they have laid out for them • Authoritarian: Highly demanding of their children, inflexible about deviations from expected behaviour, and less responsive to their children’s needs. They tend to discipline using threats and punishment and are more likely to use physical discipline. • Permissive: place very few demands on their children but are highly responsive too them. They believe children learn best on their own, without structure imposed on them by adults • Rejecting/Neglectful: Are disengaged from their children and are neither demanding of them nor responsive to them. They do not set limits for their children, do not monitor their activities and may actively discourage them Meerkats: • Teach their young to kill their (poisonous) prey by first feeding it dead, then removing the stinger only, and finally they can kill it on their own Licking the Rat: • Differences in the amount of maternal licking changed the pups hormonal and stress responses, fear responses and adaptability to new environments. Rat pups with mothers who are highly nurturing grow up to be calm, whereas those with mothers who exhibit inconsistent nurturing behaviours tend to be anxious as adults Imprinting: • Form of rapid learning through which the newborn organism forms a rapid bond to its mother. • It ensures the newborn will remain close to its main source of safety and nourishment • Newborn chicks will imprint upon the first moving object they see that meets certain criteria John Bowlby: • Developed theory of attachment • Suggested infants come to see their primary caregiver as a secure base from which they can safely venture out to explore their environment • Attachment bond is formed in 4 stages: • Stage 1: Pre-attachment: birth-six weeks -Infants remain in close contact with caregiver, reliant on their caregivers for food, protection and comfort -infants do not display signs of distress when left in the care of someone who is not one of the primary caregivers • Stage 2: Attachment-in-the-making: six weeks-six to eight months: -infants begin to treat people differently, showing more preferential treatment to familiar people -they may become wary of or nervous around unfamiliar people, animals or objects -infants form expectations for their parent-child relationship • Stage 3: Clear-cut attachment: six to eight months-18 months -infants actively seek comfort from their caregivers -caregivers become a secure base for the infant -infants may start to display separation anxiety, showing signs of extreme distress when separated from their caregivers • Stage 4: reciprocal relationship phase: 18-24 months -as children grow more mobile in their actions they begin to become comfortable spending increased time separated from their caregivers -relationship between child and caregivers becomes more reciprocal Harry Harlow: tested Bowlby’s theory of attachment • Alternative to attachment theory is “drive reduction theory” which theorized infants cry for their caregivers because they need caregivers to satisfy their physiological drives such as hunger • Tested this by raising infant monkeys in a cage away from their mothers • In the cage were 2 inanimate monkey mannequins, one made of wire with a bottle attached, the other provided no nourishment but was covered in soft cloth • The infants spend all their time with the cloth monkey, and only went to the wire monkey to get food • Harlow did another experiment in which he opened the infant monkeys cage and placed a loud mechanical creature in the opening. • The monkeys automatically rand to cloth mothers, but after re-establishing their bond, they would step off and begin to inspect the machine Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation: • Conducted an experiment introducing a caregiver and infant into room • Caregiver does not interact with infant • Stranger enters, interacts with caregiver • Caregiver exists leaving infant with stranger (notes separation anxiety) • Caregiver enters room • Caregiver leaves, leaving the infant alone • Stranger re-enters, attempts to comfort • Caregiver returns, comforts • Type of attachment is determined Types of Attachment: • Secure attachment: react positively to stranger with caregiver present, but become unhappy when caregiver leaves. -Unlikely to be comforted by stranger, but become calm when caregiver returns. -Demonstrate “secure babe” behaviour, exploring environment using caregiver as a base • Insecure-Resistant Attachment: are uncomfortable in strange situation. May stay close to caregiver from start of test, appearing nervous throughout. -Upset when caregiver leaves, but not comforted by them when they return. -Seek contact and comfort upon caregiver’s return, crying and struggling being held. -Stay close to caregiver upon return • Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: do not react with strangle situation in standard way. --Behaviour is contradictory
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