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Lecture 2

Week 20.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Week 20: Motivation and Emotion Motivation: • “The (internal and external) desires, needs and interests that arouse and activate an organism to move toward a specific goal” • “A general term for a group phenomena that affect the nature, strength and persistence of an individual’s behaviour” • Process by which activities are started, directed and continued, so physical or psychological needs are fulfilled Drives: • “Reversible internal conditions that orient individuals toward specific types of goals” Elements of Motivated Behaviour: • Biological: hunger and thirst • Cognitive: goals expectations and desire for personal achievement • Social : competition, peer recognition status and personal responsibility Emotion: feeling aspect of consciousness: 3 aspects: 1. Physical arousal 2. Behaviour that reveals feeling to outside world 3. Inner awareness of feelings Elements of Emotion: • Biological: increased heart rate/breathing • Cognitive :interpreting subjective feeling by giving it a label • Social: how we express behaviour (facial expressions, body movements) Regulatory Drives: contribute to our survival directly • Include hunger, thirst, thermoregulation and sleep that help maintain homeostasis, and are needed for immediate survival • Related to areas of hypothalamus Non Regulatory Drives: contribute to our survival indirectly • Fulfill some other evolutionary purpose including: • Safety (drives such as sleep and fear that motivate us to replenish our bodies to avoid danger) • Reproductive (sexual, maternal and sexual jealousy drives that motivate us to reproduce, care for our young and guard our mates) • Social (approval and acceptance drives that motivate us to cooperate) • Educative (play and exploration, which motivate us to practice our skills and learn about our environments) Motivational States: • Reward seeking states • Motivated behaviour is reinforced by the please experienced when reward has been obtained • Evolved to reinforce behaviours that result in a reduction and drive • Reward system related to limbic system, structures in the basal forebrain • Ex. Rate experiment in which they press a lever for electrical stimulation of the brain (favourable) responding at high rates over long periods of time, and even chose the shock over food. This is an example of motivation by reward that have no value for survival and drive reduction Distinctly Human: • Some believe that aesthetic pursuits are vicarious means to satisfy other drives (reproductive and social) demonstrating skill and creativity associated with high status and therefore highly desirable to members of the opposite sex • Others propose they are a means of play or exploration (non-regulatory drive) Central State: • Central state theory: certain hubs in the brain involve detection of imbalances, decision making and motor output • Hypothalamus is one such hub (or central drive system) • It senses internal states (i.e. glucose levels, hydration, internal temperature) responds to hormone levels and is connected to pituitary • Can basically restore homeostasis Drive Reduction Theory: • Some homeostatic behaviour is automatic (like shivering/sweating to maintain temperature), but other actions are motivated • Organisms have needs, those needs lead to drives and motivated behaviour is a form of drive reduction • Consider thirst: although water is needed to maintain homeostasis, the act of getting water is a motivated behaviour Push and Pull: • Central theory explains why we feel needs or are motivated to resolve them, but can’t explain specific actions we take • Some motivations serve no homeostatic purpose Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic: • Extrinsic incentives result from gaining a reward or avoiding an unpleasant consequence • Intrinsic incentives result from an internal need • Sometimes extrinsic incentives can actually reduce motivation, because a person was originally doing the activity out of interest or because it was fun, but know believes they are doing it simply for the reward (not all rewards decrease interest in activity) Over-justification: This hypothesis
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